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What Is Svn And Git | Rebasepull/Merge

Git vs SVN Differences

DESCRIPTION

git svn is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git. It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git repository.

git svn can track a standard Subversion repository, following the common “trunk/branches/tags” layout, with the –stdlayout option. It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options (see options to init below, and also the clone command).

Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git repository can be updated from Subversion by the fetch command and Subversion updated from Git by the dcommit command.

Subversion cons and pros

Advantages of Subversion include:

  • Free open-source version control system.
  • Single server for the repository and its metadata. It allows users to store locally only those files, that they want to update and commit them directly to the server.
  • History of changes.
  • Faster synchronization of differences between the local copy and the one on the central server.

Disadvantages of Subversion include:

  • Manual resolution of conflicts (that may occur) when developers work on the same file which wastes a lot of their time.
  • Need in a direct connection to the central server repository; otherwise, committing changes cannot be performed.
  • Branches are structured as directories on the server.
  • Need in more storage. Creating a branch takes up much space as it produces a full copy of all the files.
Git vs SVN Differences
Git vs SVN Differences

Pros of GitLab

  • Self hosted507
  • Free429
  • Has community edition339
  • Easy setup242
  • Familiar interface240
  • Includes many features, including ci137
  • Nice UI113
  • Good integration with gitlabci84
  • Simple setup57
  • Free private repository34
  • Has an official mobile app34
  • Continuous Integration31
  • Open source, great ui (like github)22
  • Slack Integration18
  • Full CI flow14
  • Free and unlimited private git repos11
  • User, group, and project access management is simple10
  • All in one (Git, CI, Agile..)9
  • Built-in CI8
  • Intuitive UI8
  • Full DevOps suite with Git6
  • Both public and private Repositories6
  • Integrated Docker Registry5
  • Build/pipeline definition alongside code5
  • So easy to use5
  • CI5
  • It’s powerful source code management tool5
  • Unlimited free repos & collaborators4
  • Security and Stable4
  • On-premises4
  • It’s fully integrated4
  • Excellent4
  • Issue system4
  • Mattermost Chat client4
  • Dockerized4
  • Great for team collaboration3
  • Free private repos3
  • Because is the best remote host for git repositories3
  • Low maintenance cost due omnibus-deployment3
  • Not Microsoft Owned3
  • Built-in Docker Registry3
  • Opensource3
  • I like the its runners and executors feature3
  • Multilingual interface2
  • Powerful software planning and maintaining tools2
  • Review Apps feature2
  • Kubernetes integration with GitLab CI2
  • One-click install through DigitalOcean2
  • Powerful Continuous Integration System2
  • Native CI2
  • HipChat intergration2
  • Many private repo2
  • Kubernetes Integration2
  • Published IP list for whitelisting (gl-infra#434)2
  • Wounderful2
  • Beautiful2
  • Groups of groups2
  • The dashboard with deployed environments2
  • It includes everything I need, all packaged with docker2
  • Supports Radius/Ldap & Browser Code Edits1

Types of version control systems

A version control system manages changes in a file or a set of files and organizes those changes in versions.
There are three different types of version control systems:

  • Localized, which is deployed on your local computer. It stores file changes, which you made since the previous version, as a patch. Since data is stored locally, you may lose it in case of errors or any corruption.
  • Centralized, which stores all the versions of file changes within a single central server. Multiple users can have access to files on the server from their local computers and be aware of who checks out the files and what changes applies. However, if the server is down, the changes cannot be pulled or saved and may be lost. Thus, it is recommended that you have a backup.
  • Distributed, which allows users to clone a repository along with the full history of changes on their local computers. In case of any issues with the server, users can share their copy of the project version through the remote repository and thus, avoid losing any data.
What are the main differences between GIT and SVN?
What are the main differences between GIT and SVN?

ADVANCED OPTIONS

-i
–id

This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This allows the user to override the default refname to fetch from when tracking a single URL. The log and dcommit commands no longer require this switch as an argument.

-R
–svn-remote

Specify the [svn-remote ”

“] section to use, this allows SVN multiple repositories to be tracked. Default: “svn”

–follow-parent

This option is only relevant if we are tracking branches (using one of the repository layout options –trunk, –tags, –branches, –stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to find out where its revision was copied from, and set a suitable parent in the first Git commit for the branch. This is especially helpful when we’re tracking a directory that has been moved around within the repository. If this feature is disabled, the branches created by git svn will all be linear and not share any history, meaning that there will be no information on where branches were branched off or merged. However, following long/convoluted histories can take a long time, so disabling this feature may speed up the cloning process. This feature is enabled by default, use –no-follow-parent to disable it.

config key: svn.followparent

Which Should You Use?

Each of the version control systems covered here — SVN and Git — has its particular strengths and weaknesses. Each one fits different use cases better than the other, and neither one wins out over the other one outright.

  • Use SVN when you need a VCS that favors top-down management, easy contributions, and does not require you to work entirely offline. SVN often comes out on top for enterprise usage specifically for its granular access control, and it is the clear choice if you need to set up security hierarchies.

    To get started with SVN, be sure to read through our guide How to Install and Use the Subversion CLI Client.

  • Use Git when you need numerous contributors to work in parallel, where you expect lots of potential merge conflicts, and when you need contributors to be able to work locally offline. Because it handles merge conflicts, Git makes sense for most open-source projects, where contributors often work without external coordination. Git shines in a wide range of environments with complex codebases and distributed teams.

    To learn more and start working with Git, check out our guide Getting Started with Git.

Git,SVN,Bitbucket,Github Explained
Git,SVN,Bitbucket,Github Explained

What Is the Difference Between Git and SVN?

The biggest difference between Git vs Subversion (SVN) is that Git version control is distributed while SVN is centralized. There are also key differences in repositories, branching, and more.

If you’re considering switching from SVN to Git, you’ll want to take these into account.

Back to top

Git vs SVN

Apache Subversion hay SVN là một trong những hệ thống kiểm soát phiên bản tập trung phổ biến nhất . Giờ đây, mức độ phổ biến của SVN đang giảm dần, nhưng vẫn còn hàng triệu dự án được lưu trữ trong đó. Nó có thể tiếp tục được duy trì tích cực bởi một cộng đồng nguồn mở. Trong SVN, bạn có thể kiểm tra một phiên bản duy nhất của kho lưu trữ. Nó lưu trữ dữ liệu trong một máy chủ trung tâm. Hạn chế của SVN là, nó có toàn bộ lịch sử trên một kho lưu trữ cục bộ giới hạn bạn. Bạn chỉ có thể thực hiện commits, diffs, logs, branches, merges, chú thích file, v.v.

Trong khi, Git là một hệ thống kiểm soát phiên bản phân tán phổ biến , có nghĩa là bạn có thể sao chép kho lưu trữ của mình. Vì vậy, bạn có thể nhận được một bản sao hoàn chỉnh của toàn bộ lịch sử của bạn về dự án đó. Điều này có nghĩa là bạn có thể truy cập tất cả các commits của mình.

Git có nhiều ưu điểm hơn SVN . Nó tốt hơn nhiều cho những developer không phải lúc nào cũng được kết nối với kho lưu trữ chính. Ngoài ra, nó nhanh hơn nhiều so với SVN.

Để hiểu rõ hơn về sự khác biệt giữa Git và Subversion. Chúng ta hãy xem xét các điểm quan trọng sau đây.

Git SVN
Đó là một hệ thống kiểm soát phiên bản phân tán. Đó là một hệ thống kiểm soát phiên bản tập trung
Git là một SCM (quản lý mã nguồn). SVN là kiểm soát sửa đổi.
Git có một kho lưu trữ nhân bản. SVN không có kho lưu trữ nhân bản.
Các nhánh Git quen thuộc để làm việc. Hệ thống Git giúp hợp nhất các tệp một cách nhanh chóng và cũng hỗ trợ tìm kiếm những tệp chưa được hợp nhất. Các nhánh SVN là một thư mục tồn tại trong kho. Một số lệnh đặc biệt được yêu cầu Để hợp nhất các nhánh.
Git không có số sửa đổi Toàn cầu. SVN có số sửa đổi Toàn cầu.
Git có nội dung được băm bằng mật mã để bảo vệ nội dung khỏi bị hỏng kho lưu trữ do sự cố mạng hoặc lỗi đĩa. SVN không có bất kỳ nội dung được băm bằng mật mã nào.
Git nội dung được lưu trữ dưới dạng siêu dữ liệu. SVN lưu trữ nội dung dưới dạng tệp.
Git có nhiều tính năng bảo vệ nội dung hơn SVN. Nội dung của SVN kém an toàn hơn Git.
Linus Torvalds đã phát triển git cho nhân Linux. CollabNet, Inc đã phát triển SVN.
Git được phân phối theo GNU (Giấy phép công cộng chung). SVN được phân phối theo giấy phép nguồn mở.

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Difference Between GIT and SVN

GIT: Git is an open-source distributed version control system developed by Linus Torvalds in 2005. Its emphasis on speed and data integrity in which there is no centralized connectivity is needed. It is powerful and cheap branching with easy merge in which each developer has his repository and have a local copy in which they can change history. It supports non-linear development branches and applications with a large number of codes files.

Here are some .git directory structures used in GIT:

  • HEAD/: A pointer structure used in git.
  • Config/: Contains all configuration preferences.
  • description/: Description of your project.
  • index/: It is used as a staging area between working directory.
  • object/: All the data are stored here.
  • logs/: Keeps record to change that are made.

SVN: Apache Subversion is an open-source software version and revision control system under the Apache license. It managed files and folders that are present in the repository. It can operate across the network, which allows it and used by people on different computer .we can say that a repository is like an ordinary file server which allows it to be used by people on a different computer.

Below is a table of differences between GIT and SVN:

GIT SVN
Git is open source distributed vice control system developed by Linus Torvalds in 2005. It emphasis on speed and data integrity Apache Subversion is an open source software version and revision control system under Apache license.
Git has a Distributed Model. SVN has a Centralized Model.
In git every user has their own copy of code on their local like their own branch. In SVN there is central repository has working copy that also make changes and committed in central repository.
In git we do not required any Network to perform git operation. In SVN we required Network for runs the SVN operation.
Git is more difficult to learn. It has more concepts and commands. SVN is much easier to learn as compared to git.
Git deals with large number of files like binary files that change quickly that why it become slow. SVN control the large number of binary files easily.
In git we create only .git directory. In SVN we create .svn directory in each folder.
It does not have good UI as compared to SVN. SVN has simple and better user interface .

Features of GIT:

  • Distributed System.
  • Branching.
  • Compatibility.
  • Non-linear Development.
  • Lightweight.
  • Open source.

Features of SVN:

  • Directories are versioned
  • Copying, deleting, and renaming.
  • Free-form versioned metadata .
  • Atomic commits.
  • Branching and tagging.
  • Merge tracking.
  • File locking.

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Last Updated :
21 Jun, 2022

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Subversion vs Git
Subversion vs Git

REBASEPULL/MERGE

Prefer to use git svn rebase or git rebase, rather than git pull or git merge to synchronize unintegrated commits with a git svn branch. Doing so will keep the history of unintegrated commits linear with respect to the upstream SVN repository and allow the use of the preferred git svn dcommit subcommand to push unintegrated commits back into SVN.

Originally, git svn recommended that developers pulled or merged from
the git svn branch. This was because the author favored

git svn set-tree B

to commit a single head rather than the

git svn set-tree A..B

notation to commit multiple commits. Use of
git pull or git merge with

git svn set-tree A..B

will cause non-linear
history to be flattened when committing into SVN and this can lead to merge
commits unexpectedly reversing previous commits in SVN.

BASIC EXAMPLES

Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project (ignoring tags and branches):

# Clone a repo (like git clone): git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project/trunk # Enter the newly cloned directory: cd trunk # You should be on master branch, double-check with ‘git branch’ git branch # Do some work and commit locally to Git: git commit … # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the # latest changes in SVN: git svn rebase # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN, # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD: git svn dcommit # Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file: git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude

Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project (complete with a trunk, tags and branches):

# Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone): git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project –stdlayout –prefix svn/ # Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout: git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag –prefix svn/ # View all branches and tags you have cloned: git branch -r # Create a new branch in SVN git svn branch waldo # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing ‘trunk’ # with the appropriate name): git reset –hard svn/trunk # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time. The usage # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.

The initial git svn clone can be quite time-consuming (especially for large Subversion repositories). If multiple people (or one person with multiple machines) want to use git svn to interact with the same Subversion repository, you can do the initial git svn clone to a repository on a server and have each person clone that repository with git clone:

# Do the initial import on a server ssh server “cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project [options…]” # Clone locally – make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server mkdir project cd project git init git remote add origin server:/pub/project git config –replace-all remote.origin.fetch ‘+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*’ git fetch # Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future, # we only want to use git svn for future updates git config –remove-section remote.origin # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD # Initialize ‘git svn’ locally (be sure to use the same URL and # –stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/–prefix options as were used on server) git svn init http://svn.example.com/project [options…] # Pull the latest changes from Subversion git svn rebase

Connect; 2017 Moving from Subversion to Git
Connect; 2017 Moving from Subversion to Git

CAVEATS

For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion, it is recommended that all git svn users clone, fetch and dcommit directly from the SVN server, and avoid all git clone/pull/merge/push operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended method of exchanging code between Git branches and users is git format-patch and git am, or just ‘dcommit’ing to the SVN repository.

Running git merge or git pull is NOT recommended on a branch you plan to dcommit from because Subversion users cannot see any merges you’ve made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git branch that is a mirror of an SVN branch, dcommit may commit to the wrong branch.

If you do merge, note the following rule: git svn dcommit will attempt to commit on top of the SVN commit named in

git log –grep=^git-svn-id: –first-parent -1

You must therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch you want to dcommit to is the first parent of the merge. Chaos will ensue otherwise, especially if the first parent is an older commit on the same SVN branch.

git clone does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or any git svn metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with using git svn should use rsync for cloning, if cloning is to be done at all.

Since dcommit uses rebase internally, any Git branches you git push to before dcommit on will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad practice, see the git-push[1] documentation for details.

Do not use the –amend option of git-commit[1] on a change you’ve already dcommitted. It is considered bad practice to –amend commits you’ve already pushed to a remote repository for other users, and dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.

When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing
the repository layout is used (–trunk, –tags, –branches,
–stdlayout), git svn clone will create a Git repository with
completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a
copy of a complete repository, for projects with many branches it will
lead to a working copy many times larger than just the trunk. Thus for
projects using the standard directory structure (trunk/branches/tags),
it is recommended to clone with option

--stdlayout

. If the project
uses a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not
required, it is easiest to only clone one directory (typically trunk),
without giving any repository layout options. If the full history with
branches and tags is required, the options

--trunk

/

--branches

/

--tags

must be used.

When using multiple –branches or –tags, git svn does not automatically handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases, use init to set up your Git repository then, before your first fetch, edit the $GIT_DIR/config file so that the branches and tags are associated with different name spaces. For example:

branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/* branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*

Directory structure

Each reference, or labeled snapshot of a commit, in a project is organized within specific subdirectories, such as

trunk

,

branches

, and

tags

. For example, an SVN project with two features under development might look like this:


sample_project/trunk/README.md sample_project/trunk/lib/widget.rb sample_project/branches/new_feature/README.md sample_project/branches/new_feature/lib/widget.rb sample_project/branches/another_new_feature/README.md sample_project/branches/another_new_feature/lib/widget.rb

An SVN workflow looks like this:

  • The

    trunk

    directory represents the latest stable release of a project.
  • Active feature work is developed within subdirectories under

    branches

    .
  • When a feature is finished, the feature directory is merged into

    trunk

    and removed.

Git projects are also stored within a single directory. However, Git obscures the details of its references by storing them in a special .git directory. For example, a Git project with two features under development might look like this:


sample_project/.git sample_project/README.md sample_project/lib/widget.rb

A Git workflow looks like this:

  • A Git repository stores the full history of all of its branches and tags within the .git directory.
  • The latest stable release is contained within the default branch.
  • Active feature work is developed in separate branches.
  • When a feature is finished, the feature branch is merged into the default branch and deleted.

Unlike SVN, with Git the directory structure remains the same, but the contents of the files change based on your branch.

GitLab | SVN to gitlab migration steps | okay java |
GitLab | SVN to gitlab migration steps | okay java |

GIT

Part of the git[1] suite

Need advice about which tool to choose?Ask the StackShare community!

GitLab vs SVN (Subversion): What are the differences?

Introduction

GitLab and SVN (Subversion) are both version control systems that are widely used in the software development industry. While they both serve the purpose of managing and tracking changes to files, there are key differences that set them apart.

  1. Distributed vs. Centralized: One of the main differences between GitLab and SVN is their architecture. GitLab is a distributed version control system, which means that each developer has a complete copy of the entire repository. This allows for offline work and easy branching and merging. On the other hand, SVN is a centralized version control system, which relies on a central server that stores the repository. Developers need to be connected to the server to access and update files.

  2. Branching and Merging: GitLab provides advanced branching and merging capabilities. Developers can create branches and work on them independently, making it easy to experiment and work on multiple features simultaneously. GitLab also offers powerful merging tools that allow for easy integration of changes from different branches. SVN, on the other hand, has a more limited branching and merging model. It follows a trunk-branch approach, where only one branch is typically used for development, and merging can be more challenging and error-prone.

  3. Performance and Scalability: GitLab is known for its performance and scalability. It is designed to handle large codebases and repositories with millions of files and commits. GitLab’s distributed nature also allows for faster operations as most tasks can be done locally without relying on a central server. SVN, on the other hand, may struggle with large repositories and can be slower when dealing with a high number of files and commits.

  4. Integration and Tooling: GitLab offers a wide range of integrations and tooling support. It has a robust ecosystem of plugins and extensions, allowing seamless integration with other development tools and services. GitLab also provides an extensive API that can be used to automate tasks and build custom integrations. SVN, on the other hand, has fewer integration options and may require additional configuration to work with other tools.

  5. Community and Collaboration: GitLab has a thriving community and is known for its strong emphasis on collaboration. It provides built-in features for code reviews, issue tracking, and continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD). GitLab also supports collaboration workflows with features like merge requests and code discussions. SVN, on the other hand, lacks some of these collaboration features and may require additional tools or plugins to achieve similar functionality.

  6. Hosting and Cost: GitLab offers a cloud-based SaaS version, as well as a self-hosted version that can be deployed on-premises or on a private server. The self-hosted version of GitLab is free, open-source, and provides full control over the infrastructure. SVN, on the other hand, is typically self-hosted and requires server infrastructure to set up and maintain. This can result in additional costs for hardware, maintenance, and administration.

In summary, GitLab and SVN differ in their architecture (distributed vs. centralized), branching and merging capabilities, performance and scalability, integration and tooling support, community and collaboration features, and hosting options.

Do you review your Pull/Merge Request before assigning Reviewers?

If you work in a team opening a Pull Request (or Merge Request) looks appropriate. However, have you ever thought about opening a Pull/Merge Request when working by yourself? Here’s a checklist of things you can review in your own:

  • Pick the correct target branch
  • Make Drafts explicit
  • Name things properly
  • Ask help for tools
  • Remove the noise
  • Fetch necessary data
  • Understand Mergeability
  • Pass the message
  • Add screenshots
  • Be found in the future
  • Comment inline in your changes

Read the blog post for more detailed explanation for each item 😀

What else do you review before asking for code review?

Using an inclusive language is crucial for fostering a diverse culture. Git has changed the naming conventions to be more language-inclusive, and so you should change. Our development tools, like GitHub and GitLab, already supports the change.

SourceLevel deals very nicely with repositories that changed the master branch to a more appropriate word. Besides, you can use the grep linter the look for exclusive terms contained in the source code.

As the inclusive language gap may happen in other aspects of our lives, have you already thought about them?

One of the magic tricks git performs is the ability to rewrite log history. You can do it in many ways, but

git rebase -i

is the one I most use. With this command, It’s possible to switch commits order, remove a commit, squash two or more commits, or edit, for instance.

It’s particularly useful to run it before opening a pull request. It allows developers to “clean up” the mess and organize commits before submitting to review. If you follow the practice 3 and 4, then the list of commits should look very similar to a task list. It should reveal the rationale you had, telling the story of how you end up with that final code.

Out of most of the VCS solutions out there, we found Gitlab was the most feature complete with a free community edition. Their DevSecops offering is also a very robust solution. Gitlab CI/CD was quite easy to setup and the direct integration with your VCS + CI/CD is also a bonus. Out of the box integration with major cloud providers, alerting through instant messages etc. are all extremely convenient. We push our CI/CD updates to MS Teams.

Gitlab as A LOT of features that GitHub and Azure DevOps are missing. Even if both GH and Azure are backed by Microsoft, GitLab being open source has a faster upgrade rate and the hosted by gitlab.com solution seems more appealing than anything else! Quick win: the UI is way better and the Pipeline is way easier to setup on GitLab!

At DeployPlace we use self-hosted GitLab, we have chosen GitLab as most of us are familiar with it. We are happy with all features GitLab provides, I can’t imagine our life without integrated GitLab CI. Another important feature for us is integrated code review tool, we use it every day, we use merge requests, code reviews, branching. To be honest, most of us have GitHub accounts as well, we like to contribute in open source, and we want to be a part of the tech community, but lack of solutions from GitHub in the area of CI doesn’t let us chose it for our projects.

How to lock and unlock files

You may encounter a situation when your working copy differs from the one in the SVN server repository. For example, if you did not update your working copy
with the latest changes from the SVN server repository and modified the file, you may face a conflict. However, if the text file, such as a readme file, is outdated, you can
merge your local changes with the changes in the repository. In this case, no conflict arises, as your changes will be automatically merged with the latest copy from the repository.
If you and other developer modify the same file, you can resolve the conflict manually by comparing the code and applying the required changes.

But if both of you modify the same graphic file, you cannot merge it, and one of you will lose your changes. Instead, you can lock the file. How does it work? You run a lock command that puts a flag on the file with which you are working.
This lock informs that the file is blocked and only you can alter and commit it. Other users won’t be able to modify, delete, or commit the file until you unlock it. Still, other users
may be unaware of the locked file. Therefore, they should conduct a regular check of the file status.

To lock the file, run

svn lock filename

where filename is the path to the file you want to lock. If you want to lock the file that has already been locked by another user, you need to run the following command:

svn lock --force filename

.

To check the status of the file, run

svn status

. This command will display the statuses of all files in the current directory. For example, A refers to added, M – to modified, L – to locked, C – to conflict, etc.

When you finished working on the file, you can unlock it by running

svn unlock filename

. After that, other users can start performing some operations on the file.
If you want to commit the locked file, you can run the

svn unlock --force

command.

Sometimes you can get an error message when working with the

lock

commands:

Can't open file 'PATH/TO/YOUR/FILES/.svn/lock': Permission denied

.
It means that you ran the svn commands as a root user which is better to avoid. To resolve the issue, you need to reset file access rights and ownership on all your files in your directory, including the hidden .svn files.
To achieve this, execute the commands in the following order:


# specify the path to your project
cd /path_to_your_project
# reset ownership rights
# replace user_and_group with your username and group
sudo find . -exec chown user_and_group {} \;
# reset permissions
# replace file_permissions with your file permissions
sudo find . -exec chmod file_permissions {} \;
# execute the cleanup command to repair your .svn folders
svn cleanup

Webinar : SVN to GIT Migration
Webinar : SVN to GIT Migration

Including subprojects

A subproject is a project that’s developed and managed somewhere outside of your main project. You typically import a subproject to add some functionality to your project without needing to maintain the code yourself. Whenever the subproject is updated, you can synchronize it with your project to ensure that everything is up-to-date.

In SVN, a subproject is called an SVN external. In Git, it’s called a Git submodule. Although conceptually similar, Git submodules are not kept up-to-date automatically; you must explicitly ask for a new version to be brought into your project.

For more information, see “Git Tools Submodules” in the Git documentation.

How to check an SVN version

To find out the version of SVN server, you can do the following:

  • When accessing the server via the browser, switch to the SVN server repository and search for the version in the HTML source code.
  • When checking the server version by using the SVN client, run

    svn --version

    in the terminal.
SVN tutorial for beginner | tortoiseSVN
SVN tutorial for beginner | tortoiseSVN

SVN vs Git: Which Version Control System Should You Use?

Traducciones al EspañolEstamos traduciendo nuestros guías y tutoriales al Español. Es posible que usted esté viendo una traducción generada automáticamente. Estamos trabajando con traductores profesionales para verificar las traducciones de nuestro sitio web. Este proyecto es un trabajo en curso.

Version Control Systems (VCS), like Git and SVN, track and manage code changes and provide an efficient way to collaborate on software development projects. A VCS is especially useful as a software development project grows in size and complexity, but even the simplest projects can benefit from tracking code changes with a VCS.

Git and SVN are two of the most popular open source VCS solutions. Git has recently skyrocketed in popularity due to its use by developers collaborating on open-source projects. SVN, on the other hand, has been more commonly used in enterprise software development projects.

This guide discusses the features and pros and cons of Git and SVN to help you choose the best VCS for your software development project.

CONFIG FILE-ONLY OPTIONS

svn.noMetadata
svn-remote.

.noMetadata

This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every commit.

This option can only be used for one-shot imports as git svn will not be able to fetch again without metadata. Additionally, if you lose your $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.* files, git svn will not be able to rebuild them.

The git svn log command will not work on repositories using this, either. Using this conflicts with the useSvmProps option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.

This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down old references to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug reports, and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider git-filter-repo instead. filter-repo also allows reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship info for non-“svn.authorsFile” users.

svn.useSvmProps
svn-remote.

.useSvmProps

This allows git svn to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from mirrors created using SVN::Mirror (or svk) for metadata.

If an SVN revision has a property, “svm:headrev”, it is likely that the revision was created by SVN::Mirror (also used by SVK). The property contains a repository UUID and a revision. We want to make it look like we are mirroring the original URL, so introduce a helper function that returns the original identity URL and UUID, and use it when generating metadata in commit messages.

svn.useSvnsyncProps
svn-remote.

.useSvnsyncprops

Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users of the svnsync(1) command distributed with SVN 1.4.x and later.

svn-remote.

.rewriteRoot

This allows users to create repositories from alternate URLs. For example, an administrator could run git svn on the server locally (accessing via file://) but wish to distribute the repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the metadata so users of it will see the public URL.

svn-remote.

.rewriteUUID

Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need to remap the UUID manually. This may be useful in situations where the original UUID is not available via either useSvmProps or useSvnsyncProps.

svn-remote.

.pushurl

Similar to Git’s


remote.

.pushurl


, this key is designed to be used in cases where url points to an SVN repository via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same repository. Unlike commiturl, pushurl is a base path. If either commiturl or pushurl could be used, commiturl takes precedence.

svn.brokenSymlinkWorkaround

This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround broken symlinks checked into SVN by broken clients. Set this option to “false” if you track a SVN repository with many empty blobs that are not symlinks. This option may be changed while git svn is running and take effect on the next revision fetched. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be “true”.

svn.pathnameencoding

This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given encoding. It can be used by windows users and by those who work in non-utf8 locales to avoid corrupted file names with non-ASCII characters. Valid encodings are the ones supported by Perl’s Encode module.

svn-remote.

.automkdirs

Normally, the “git svn clone” and “git svn rebase” commands attempt to recreate empty directories that are in the Subversion repository. If this option is set to “false”, then empty directories will only be created if the “git svn mkdirs” command is run explicitly. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be “true”.

Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps options all affect the metadata generated and used by git svn; they must be set in the configuration file before any history is imported and these settings should never be changed once they are set.

Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote section because they affect the git-svn-id: metadata line, except for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be used together.

How Git Works: Explained in 4 Minutes
How Git Works: Explained in 4 Minutes

COMMANDS

init

Initializes an empty Git repository with additional metadata directories for git svn. The Subversion URL may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full URL arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target directory to operate on can be specified as a second argument. Normally this command initializes the current directory.

-T
–trunk=
-b
–branches=
-s
–stdlayout

These are optional command-line options for init. Each of these flags can point to a relative repository path (–tags=project/tags) or a full url (–tags=https://foo.org/project/tags). You can specify more than one –tags and/or –branches options, in case your Subversion repository places tags or branches under multiple paths. The option –stdlayout is a shorthand way of setting trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths, which is the Subversion default. If any of the other options are given as well, they take precedence.

–no-metadata

Set the noMetadata option in the [svn-remote] config. This option is not recommended, please read the svn.noMetadata section of this manpage before using this option.

–use-svm-props

Set the useSvmProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

–use-svnsync-props

Set the useSvnsyncProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

–rewrite-root=

Set the rewriteRoot option in the [svn-remote] config.

–rewrite-uuid=

Set the rewriteUUID option in the [svn-remote] config.

–username=

For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http, https, and plain svn), specify the username. For other transports (e.g.


svn+ssh://

), you must include the username in the URL, e.g.

svn+ssh://[email protected]/project

–prefix=

This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended to the names of remotes if trunk/branches/tags are specified. The prefix does not automatically include a trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the argument if that is what you want. If –branches/-b is specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash. Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is strongly encouraged in any case, as your SVN-tracking refs will then be located at “refs/remotes/$prefix/”, which is compatible with Git’s own remote-tracking ref layout (refs/remotes/$remote/). Setting a prefix is also useful if you wish to track multiple projects that share a common repository. By default, the prefix is set to origin/.

Note

Before Git v2.0, the default prefix was “” (no prefix). This meant that SVN-tracking refs were put at “refs/remotes/*”, which is incompatible with how Git’s own remote-tracking refs are organized. If you still want the old default, you can get it by passing


--prefix ""

on the command line (

--prefix=""

may not work if your Perl’s Getopt::Long is < v2.37).

–ignore-refs=

When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of


--ignore-refs

.

–ignore-paths=

When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of


--ignore-paths

.

–include-paths=

When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of


--include-paths

.

–no-minimize-url

When tracking multiple directories (using –stdlayout, –branches, or –tags options), git svn will attempt to connect to the root (or highest allowed level) of the Subversion repository. This default allows better tracking of history if entire projects are moved within a repository, but may cause issues on repositories where read access restrictions are in place. Passing


--no-minimize-url

will allow git svn to accept URLs as-is without attempting to connect to a higher level directory. This option is off by default when only one URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).

fetch

Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are tracking. The name of the [svn-remote “…”] section in the $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional command-line argument.

This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.* in the FILES section below for details).

–localtime

Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of UTC. This makes git log (even without –date=local) show the same times that


svn log

would in the local time zone.

This doesn’t interfere with interoperating with the Subversion repository you cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git repository to be able to interoperate with someone else’s local Git repository, either don’t use this option or you should both use it in the same local time zone.

–parent

Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.

–ignore-refs=

Ignore refs for branches or tags matching the Perl regular expression. A “negative look-ahead assertion” like


^refs/remotes/origin/(?!tags/wanted-tag|wanted-branch).*$

can be used to allow only certain refs.

config key: svn-remote.

.ignore-refs

If the ignore-refs configuration key is set, and the command-line option is also given, both regular expressions will be used.

–ignore-paths=

This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout from SVN. The


--ignore-paths

option should match for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase, etc) on a given repository.

config key: svn-remote.

.ignore-paths

If the ignore-paths configuration key is set, and the command-line option is also given, both regular expressions will be used.

Examples:

–include-paths=

This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause the inclusion of only matching paths from checkout from SVN. The


--include-paths

option should match for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase, etc) on a given repository.

--ignore-paths

takes precedence over

--include-paths

.

config key: svn-remote.

.include-paths

–log-window-size=

Fetch

log entries per request when scanning Subversion history. The default is 100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger values may be needed for clone/fetch to complete in reasonable time. But overly large values may lead to higher memory usage and request timeouts.

clone

Runs init and fetch. It will automatically create a directory based on the basename of the URL passed to it; or if a second argument is passed; it will create a directory and work within that. It accepts all arguments that the init and fetch commands accept; with the exception of


--fetch-all

and

--parent

. After a repository is cloned, the fetch command will be able to update revisions without affecting the working tree; and the rebase command will be able to update the working tree with the latest changes.

–preserve-empty-dirs

Create a placeholder file in the local Git repository for each empty directory fetched from Subversion. This includes directories that become empty by removing all entries in the Subversion repository (but not the directory itself). The placeholder files are also tracked and removed when no longer necessary.

–placeholder-filename=

Set the name of placeholder files created by –preserve-empty-dirs. Default: “.gitignore”

rebase

This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current HEAD and rebases the current (uncommitted to SVN) work against it.

This works similarly to


svn update

or git pull except that it preserves linear history with git rebase instead of git merge for ease of dcommitting with git svn.

This accepts all options that git svn fetch and git rebase accept. However,


--fetch-all

only fetches from the current [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote] definitions.

Like git rebase; this requires that the working tree be clean and have no uncommitted changes.

This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.* in the FILES section below for details).

dcommit

Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create a revision in SVN for each commit in Git.

When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name) is specified as an argument, the subcommand works on the specified branch, not on the current branch.

Use of dcommit is preferred to set-tree (below).

–no-rebase

After committing, do not rebase or reset.

–commit-url

Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended to allow existing git svn repositories created with one transport method (e.g.


svn://

or

http://

for anonymous read) to be reused if a user is later given access to an alternate transport method (e.g.

svn+ssh://

or

https://

) for commit.

config key: svn-remote.

.commiturl config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.

.commiturl options)

Note that the SVN URL of the commiturl config key includes the SVN branch. If you rather want to set the commit URL for an entire SVN repository use svn-remote.

.pushurl instead.

Using this option for any other purpose (don’t ask) is very strongly discouraged.

–mergeinfo=

Add the given merge information during the dcommit (e.g.


--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10"

). All svn server versions can store this information (as a property), and svn clients starting from version 1.5 can make use of it. To specify merge information from multiple branches, use a single space character between the branches (

--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10 /branches/bar:3,5-6,8"

)

config key: svn.pushmergeinfo

This option will cause git-svn to attempt to automatically populate the svn:mergeinfo property in the SVN repository when possible. Currently, this can only be done when dcommitting non-fast-forward merges where all parents but the first have already been pushed into SVN.

–interactive

Ask the user to confirm that a patch set should actually be sent to SVN. For each patch, one may answer “yes” (accept this patch), “no” (discard this patch), “all” (accept all patches), or “quit”.

git svn dcommit returns immediately if answer is “no” or “quit”, without committing anything to SVN.

branch

Create a branch in the SVN repository.

-m
–message

Allows to specify the commit message.

-t
–tag

Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir specified during git svn init.

-d
–destination=

If more than one –branches (or –tags) option was given to the init or clone command, you must provide the location of the branch (or tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. specifies which path to use to create the branch or tag and should match the pattern on the left-hand side of one of the configured branches or tags refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the commands

git config –get-all svn-remote.

.branches git config –get-all svn-remote.

.tags

where

is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to init (or “svn” by default).

–username

Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option overrides the username configuration property.

–commit-url

Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion repository. This is useful in cases where the source SVN repository is read-only. This option overrides configuration property commiturl.

git config –get-all svn-remote.

.commiturl

–parents

Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter –parents on svn cp commands and is useful for non-standard repository layouts.

tag

Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for branch -t.

log

This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn users refer to -r/–revision numbers.

The following features from ‘svn log’ are supported:

-r

[:
–revision=

[:

is supported, non-numeric args are not: HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc …

-v
–verbose

it’s not completely compatible with the –verbose output in svn log, but reasonably close.

–limit=

is NOT the same as –max-count, doesn’t count merged/excluded commits

–incremental

supported

New features:

Note

SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The regular svn client converts the UTC time to the local time (or based on the TZ= environment). This command has the same behaviour.

Any other arguments are passed directly to git log

blame

Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of ‘svn blame’ by default. Like the SVN blame command, local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored; the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown arguments are passed directly to git blame.

find-rev

When given an SVN revision number of the form rN, returns the corresponding Git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.

-B
–before

Don’t require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find the commit corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the current branch) at the specified revision.

-A
–after

Don’t require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is not an exact match return the closest match searching forward in the history.

set-tree

You should consider using dcommit instead of this command. Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on your imported fetch data being up to date. This makes absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree or commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place independently of git svn functions.

create-ignore

Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and creates matching .gitignore files. The resulting files are staged to be committed, but are not committed. Use -r/–revision to refer to a specific revision.

show-ignore

Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on directories. The output is suitable for appending to the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.

mkdirs

Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/

/unhandled.log files. Empty directories are automatically recreated when using “git svn clone” and “git svn rebase”, so “mkdirs” is intended for use after commands like “git checkout” or “git reset”. (See the svn-remote.

.automkdirs config file option for more information.)

commit-diff

Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the command-line. This command does not rely on being inside a


git svn init

-ed repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the URL of the target Subversion repository. The final argument (URL) may be omitted if you are working from a git svn-aware repository (that has been

init

-ed with git svn). The -r

option is required for this.

The commit message is supplied either directly with the


-m

or

-F

option, or indirectly from the tag or commit when the second tree-ish denotes such an object, or it is requested by invoking an editor (see

--edit

option below).

info

Shows information about a file or directory similar to what ‘svn info’ provides. Does not currently support a -r/–revision argument. Use the –url option to output only the value of the URL: field.

proplist

Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository about a given file or directory. Use -r/–revision to refer to a specific Subversion revision.

propget

Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a file. A specific revision can be specified with -r/–revision.

propset

Sets the Subversion property given as the first argument, to the value given as the second argument for the file given as the third argument.

Example:

git svn propset svn:keywords “FreeBSD=%H” devel/py-tipper/Makefile

This will set the property svn:keywords to FreeBSD=%H for the file devel/py-tipper/Makefile.

show-externals

Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/–revision to specify a specific revision.

gc

Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/

/unhandled.log files and remove $GIT_DIR/svn/

/index files.

reset

Undoes the effects of fetch back to the specified revision. This allows you to re-fetch an SVN revision. Normally the contents of an SVN revision should never change and reset should not be necessary. However, if SVN permissions change, or if you alter your –ignore-paths option, a fetch may fail with “not found in commit” (file not previously visible) or “checksum mismatch” (missed a modification). If the problem file cannot be ignored forever (with –ignore-paths) the only way to repair the repo is to use reset.

Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.* in the FILES section below for details). Follow reset with a fetch and then git reset or git rebase to move local branches onto the new tree.

-r
–revision=

Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later revisions are discarded.

-p
–parent

Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the nearest parent instead.

Example:

Assume you have local changes in “master”, but you need to refetch “r2”.

r1—r2—r3 remotes/git-svn \ A—B master

Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that caused “r2” to be incomplete in the first place. Then:

git svn reset -r2 -p git svn fetch

r1—r2′–r3′ remotes/git-svn \ r2—r3—A—B master

Then fixup “master” with git rebase. Do NOT use git merge or your history will not be compatible with a future dcommit!

git rebase –onto remotes/git-svn A^ master

r1—r2′–r3′ remotes/git-svn \ A’–B’ master

Benefits of using dbForge Source Control

The market offers plenty of tools to work with changes in the SVN. However, one of the most convenient and efficient tools is
– dbForge Source Control for SQL Server – using which change management is getting easier than ever.
You can link your databases to the most widely-used version control systems, including SVN, and perform all operations within a single tool.

  • Boost developer productivity
  • Simplify the management of multiple developers working on the product
  • Automate complex and repeatable processes
  • Integrate source control into your DevOps without losing quality and performance
  • Ensure smooth and flexible change management in a visual and user-friendly interface
  • Adjust a database development and deployment due to the support of shared and dedicated database development models
  • View a complete revision history of a database or database objects

Setup and Config

Getting and Creating Projects

Basic Snapshotting

Branching and Merging

Sharing and Updating Projects

Inspection and Comparison

Patching

Debugging

External Systems

Server Admin

Guides

  • gitattributes
  • Command-line interface conventions
  • Everyday Git
  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
  • Glossary
  • Hooks
  • gitignore
  • gitmodules
  • Revisions
  • Submodules
  • Tutorial
  • Workflows
  • All guides…

Administration

Plumbing Commands

  1. 2.35.1 → 2.43.1 no changes
  2. 2.35.0
    01/24/22
  3. 2.34.1 → 2.34.8 no changes
  4. 2.34.0
    11/15/21
  5. 2.32.1 → 2.33.8 no changes
  6. 2.32.0
    06/06/21
  7. 2.30.1 → 2.31.8 no changes
  8. 2.30.0
    12/27/20
GitHub vs GitLab | Difference between GitHub and GitLab | Which one is Best
GitHub vs GitLab | Difference between GitHub and GitLab | Which one is Best

GIT

Part of the git[1] suite

Git vs SVN

Apache Subversion or SVN is one of the most popular centralized version control systems. Now, SVN’s popularity is on the decrease, but there are still millions of projects stored in it. It can continue to be actively maintained by an open-source community. In SVN, you can check out a single version of the repository. It stores data in a central server. The drawback of the SVN is, it has the entire history on a local repository which limits you. You can only do commits, diffs, logs, branches, merges, file annotations, etc.

While, Git is a popular distributed version control system, which means that you can clone your repository. Thus you can get a complete copy of your entire history of that project. This means you can access all your commits.

Git has more advantages than SVN. It is much better for those developers who are not always connected to the master repository. Also, it is much faster than SVN.

To better understand the differences between Git and Subversion. Let’s have a look at following significance points.

Next TopicGit vs Mercurial

FILES

$GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*

Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit names. In a repository where the noMetadata option is not set, this can be rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines that are at the end of every commit (see the svn.noMetadata section above for details).

git svn fetch and git svn rebase automatically update the rev_map if it is missing or not up to date. git svn reset automatically rewinds it.

Git Tutorial For Dummies
Git Tutorial For Dummies

HANDLING OF SVN BRANCHES

If git svn is configured to fetch branches (and –follow-branches is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one SVN branch, where the additional branches have names of the form branchname@nnn (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional branches are created if git svn cannot find a parent commit for the first commit in an SVN branch, to connect the branch to the history of the other branches.

Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists
of a copy operation. git svn will read this commit to get the SVN
revision the branch was created from. It will then try to find the
Git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
parent of the branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable
Git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by git
svn (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with

--revision

), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked
by git svn (such as a branch that is not tracked at all, or a
subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases, git svn will still
create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the
branch was copied from and create appropriate Git commits. This is
indicated by the message “Initializing parent:

“.

Additionally, it will create a special branch named

@

, where

is the SVN revision number the branch was copied from. This branch will point to the newly created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple such branches with an @.


Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a single SVN revision.

An example: in an SVN repository with a standard trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory trunk/sub is created in r.100. In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/. git svn clone -s will then create a branch sub. It will also create new Git commits for r.100 through r.199 and use these as the history of branch sub. Thus there will be two Git commits for each revision from r.100 to r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally, it will create a branch sub@200 pointing to the new parent commit of branch sub (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).

A Better Solution: Perforce

Perforce version control — Helix Core — has better access control and auditability than both Git and SVN.

It delivers better architecture performance, binary file management, and usability than SVN. And it offers a better way to branch and merge (Perforce Streams) than Git. Plus, if you have a team working in Git, you can add Helix4Git to bring their Git code into your build pipeline.

Helix4Git is a high-performance Git server inside Helix Core that enables developers to use their preferred Git tools (GitLab, GitHub, Bitbucket), while also getting all of the benefits of Helix Core. This enables teams to streamline their build process by letting them mirror, cache, and replicate their Git repositories on a global — on average, teams can achieve 40-80 percent faster builds that also take up 18 percent less storage.

See for yourself why Helix Core is the best version control for your team. You can get started for free for up to 5 users.

Setup and Config

Getting and Creating Projects

Basic Snapshotting

Branching and Merging

Sharing and Updating Projects

Inspection and Comparison

Patching

Debugging

External Systems

Server Admin

Guides

  • gitattributes
  • Command-line interface conventions
  • Everyday Git
  • Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
  • Glossary
  • Hooks
  • gitignore
  • gitmodules
  • Revisions
  • Submodules
  • Tutorial
  • Workflows
  • All guides…

Administration

Plumbing Commands

  1. 2.35.1 → 2.43.1 no changes
  2. 2.35.0
    01/24/22
  3. 2.34.1 → 2.34.8 no changes
  4. 2.34.0
    11/15/21
  5. 2.32.1 → 2.33.8 no changes
  6. 2.32.0
    06/06/21
  7. 2.30.1 → 2.31.8 no changes
  8. 2.30.0
    12/27/20
Git vs GitHub | Git And GitHub Difference | What Is Git And GitHub? | Git And GitHub | Simplilearn
Git vs GitHub | Git And GitHub Difference | What Is Git And GitHub? | Git And GitHub | Simplilearn

Why Is Git More Popular Than SVN?

Git is also more popular. SVN’s popularity is waning. And many teams are looking to make a switch. That’s because Git is better than SVN at branching — and it can be better than SVN for access control and auditability, based on your needs.

There are a couple of reasons for making the switch from SVN. It isn’t a great tool for automation and DevOps. And that it no longer has a vibrant community supporting it.

You could migrate from SVN to Git (and use a Git SVN pull command to pull in commits). Git seems like a no-brainer when looking for a more modern and supported system to replace SVN. Especially since it is also open source: you won’t have to budget for something that you aren’t paying for today.

However, if you are working with large files, have large global teams, security concerns, or other “at scale” challenges, Git may create more problems than it solves.

Back to top

DESCRIPTION

git svn is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git. It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git repository.

git svn can track a standard Subversion repository, following the common “trunk/branches/tags” layout, with the –stdlayout option. It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options (see options to init below, and also the clone command).

Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git repository can be updated from Subversion by the fetch command and Subversion updated from Git by the dcommit command.

Học Git và GitHub (kiểm soát dự án và làm việc với team)
Học Git và GitHub (kiểm soát dự án và làm việc với team)

Conclusion

SVN and Git are both powerful version control systems that each use a different approach to managing and merging code changes. Git uses a distributed model, whereas SVN uses a centralized model. Which VCS that you choose largely depends on your software development project’s requirements. After reading this guide, you should be able to select the best version control system for your needs.

This page was originally published on

BUGS

We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/

/unhandled.log

Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for this as it’s quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all the possible corner cases (Git doesn’t do it, either). Committing renamed and copied files is fully supported if they’re similar enough for Git to detect them.

In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag (because a tag is just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a branch). When cloning an SVN repository, git svn cannot know if such a commit to a tag will happen in the future. Thus it acts conservatively and imports all SVN tags as branches, prefixing the tag name with tags/.

Git for Professionals Tutorial - Tools & Concepts for Mastering Version Control with Git
Git for Professionals Tutorial – Tools & Concepts for Mastering Version Control with Git

ADVANCED OPTIONS

-i
–id

This sets GIT_SVN_ID (instead of using the environment). This allows the user to override the default refname to fetch from when tracking a single URL. The log and dcommit commands no longer require this switch as an argument.

-R
–svn-remote

Specify the [svn-remote ”

“] section to use, this allows SVN multiple repositories to be tracked. Default: “svn”

–follow-parent

This option is only relevant if we are tracking branches (using one of the repository layout options –trunk, –tags, –branches, –stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to find out where its revision was copied from, and set a suitable parent in the first Git commit for the branch. This is especially helpful when we’re tracking a directory that has been moved around within the repository. If this feature is disabled, the branches created by git svn will all be linear and not share any history, meaning that there will be no information on where branches were branched off or merged. However, following long/convoluted histories can take a long time, so disabling this feature may speed up the cloning process. This feature is enabled by default, use –no-follow-parent to disable it.

config key: svn.followparent

What is the Git Version Control System?

Git is a distributed version control system. In this type of VCS, a project contributor creates a local repository that is a full clone of a central repository. With a local clone of the central repository, each contributor is able to work on the project completely offline on their own computer. When changes are ready, contributors can push and merge them with the central repository.

Git has immense support from the open-source community. It has quickly become one of the most used version control systems for software development projects.

Git vs. GitHub | What is Git and GitHub?
Git vs. GitHub | What is Git and GitHub?

OPTIONS

–template=

Only used with the init command. These are passed directly to git init.

-r
–revision

Used with the fetch command.

This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history to be supported. $NUMBER, $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges), $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.

This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch; but is generally not recommended because history will be skipped and lost.

–stdin

Only used with the set-tree command.

Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so git rev-list –pretty=oneline output can be used.

–rmdir

Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not removed by default if there are no files left in them. Git cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make the commit to SVN act like Git.

config key: svn.rmdir

-e
–edit

Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by default for objects that are commits, and forced on when committing tree objects.

config key: svn.edit

-l
–find-copies-harder

Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

They are both passed directly to git diff-tree; see git-diff-tree[1] for more information.

config key: svn.l config key: svn.findcopiesharder

-A

Syntax is compatible with the file used by git cvsimport but an empty email address can be supplied with <>:

loginname = Joe User

If this option is specified and git svn encounters an SVN committer name that does not exist in the authors-file, git svn will abort operation. The user will then have to add the appropriate entry. Re-running the previous git svn command after the authors-file is modified should continue operation.

config key: svn.authorsfile

If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that does not exist in the authors file, the given file is executed with the committer name as the first argument. The program is expected to return a single line of the form “Name

” or “Name <>”, which will be treated as if included in the authors file.

Due to historical reasons a relative filename is first searched relative to the current directory for init and clone and relative to the root of the working tree for fetch. If filename is not found, it is searched like any other command in $PATH.

config key: svn.authorsProg

-q
–quiet

Make git svn less verbose. Specify a second time to make it even less verbose.

-m
–merge
-s
–strategy=
-p
–rebase-merges

These are only used with the dcommit and rebase commands.

Passed directly to git rebase when using dcommit if a git reset cannot be used (see dcommit).

-n
–dry-run

This can be used with the dcommit, rebase, branch and tag commands.

For dcommit, print out the series of Git arguments that would show which diffs would be committed to SVN.

For rebase, display the local branch associated with the upstream svn repository associated with the current branch and the URL of svn repository that will be fetched from.

For branch and tag, display the urls that will be used for copying when creating the branch or tag.

When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of fetch, rebase, or dcommit operations), look for the first


From:

line or

Signed-off-by

trailer in the log message and use that as the author string.

config key: svn.useLogAuthor

When committing to svn from Git (as part of set-tree or dcommit operations), if the existing log message doesn’t already have a


From:

or

Signed-off-by

trailer, append a

From:

line based on the Git commit’s author string. If you use this, then

--use-log-author

will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.

config key: svn.addAuthorFrom

OPTIONS

–template=

Only used with the init command. These are passed directly to git init.

-r
–revision

Used with the fetch command.

This allows revision ranges for partial/cauterized history to be supported. $NUMBER, $NUMBER1:$NUMBER2 (numeric ranges), $NUMBER:HEAD, and BASE:$NUMBER are all supported.

This can allow you to make partial mirrors when running fetch; but is generally not recommended because history will be skipped and lost.

–stdin

Only used with the set-tree command.

Read a list of commits from stdin and commit them in reverse order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so git rev-list –pretty=oneline output can be used.

–rmdir

Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not removed by default if there are no files left in them. Git cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make the commit to SVN act like Git.

config key: svn.rmdir

-e
–edit

Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

Edit the commit message before committing to SVN. This is off by default for objects that are commits, and forced on when committing tree objects.

config key: svn.edit

-l
–find-copies-harder

Only used with the dcommit, set-tree and commit-diff commands.

They are both passed directly to git diff-tree; see git-diff-tree[1] for more information.

config key: svn.l config key: svn.findcopiesharder

-A

Syntax is compatible with the file used by git cvsimport but an empty email address can be supplied with <>:

loginname = Joe User

If this option is specified and git svn encounters an SVN committer name that does not exist in the authors-file, git svn will abort operation. The user will then have to add the appropriate entry. Re-running the previous git svn command after the authors-file is modified should continue operation.

config key: svn.authorsfile

If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that does not exist in the authors file, the given file is executed with the committer name as the first argument. The program is expected to return a single line of the form “Name

” or “Name <>”, which will be treated as if included in the authors file.

Due to historical reasons a relative filename is first searched relative to the current directory for init and clone and relative to the root of the working tree for fetch. If filename is not found, it is searched like any other command in $PATH.

config key: svn.authorsProg

-q
–quiet

Make git svn less verbose. Specify a second time to make it even less verbose.

-m
–merge
-s
–strategy=
-p
–rebase-merges

These are only used with the dcommit and rebase commands.

Passed directly to git rebase when using dcommit if a git reset cannot be used (see dcommit).

-n
–dry-run

This can be used with the dcommit, rebase, branch and tag commands.

For dcommit, print out the series of Git arguments that would show which diffs would be committed to SVN.

For rebase, display the local branch associated with the upstream svn repository associated with the current branch and the URL of svn repository that will be fetched from.

For branch and tag, display the urls that will be used for copying when creating the branch or tag.

When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of fetch, rebase, or dcommit operations), look for the first


From:

line or

Signed-off-by

trailer in the log message and use that as the author string.

config key: svn.useLogAuthor

When committing to svn from Git (as part of set-tree or dcommit operations), if the existing log message doesn’t already have a


From:

or

Signed-off-by

trailer, append a

From:

line based on the Git commit’s author string. If you use this, then

--use-log-author

will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.

config key: svn.addAuthorFrom

Git Rebase & Squash in VS Code using GitLens Supercharge
Git Rebase & Squash in VS Code using GitLens Supercharge

GitSVN: Feature Comparison

Here are the biggest feature differences between Git vs. SVN. Find out which tool is better for which purposes.

Server Architecture

Server architecture is quite different between Git and SVN.

How It Works

Git software is installed on a workstation and acts as a client and a server. Every developer has a local copy of the full version history of the project on their individual machine. Git changes happen locally. So, the developer doesn’t have to be connected all the time. Once all the files are downloaded to the developer’s workstation, local operations are faster.

SVN has a separate server and client. Only the files a developer is working on are kept on the local machine, and the developer must be online, working with the server. Users check out files and commit changes back to the server.

What About Repos?

Sharing is done in central repositories, like a GitHub. And, in today’s world, enterprises have projects that span multiple repositories that include large binary files.

Storing large binary files in Git is unrealistic. Developers spend time waiting to check out the full repository onto their computer. Every time a large file is changed and committed, Git repositories grow exponentially.

Of course, there are workarounds for storing your binaries in Git, such as Git LFS. But still, every developer action leads to a mountain of change history data. This is going to slow down performance.

In SVN, only the working tree and the latest changes are checked out onto local machines. Checkouts take less time in SVN when there are a lot of changes to binary files.

SVN Is Better For Performance

When it comes to Git vs. SVN performance, the client-server model of SVN outperforms with larger files and codebases.

Back to top

Switch From SVN to a Better Tool

Many teams have switched from SVN to Helix Core. That’s because Helix Core delivers greater speed, scale, and security (and you can still use Git). See for yourself why SVN users switch. Try Helix Core for free for up to 5 users.

GitSVN Branching

SVN vs. Git branching are quite different.

How It Works

SVN branches are created as directories inside a repository. This directory structure is the core pain point with SVN branching. When the branch is ready, you commit back to the trunk.

Of course, you’re not the only one merging changes. Your version of the trunk might not reflect developers’ branches. This means conflicts, missing files, and jumbled changes riddle your branch.

This makes for a complicated branching and merging model. This is also time-consuming to manage.

Git branches are only references to a certain commit. They are lightweight — yet powerful. You can create, delete, and change a branch at any time, without affecting the commits.

If you need to test out a new feature or you find a bug, you can make a branch, make the changes, push the commit to the central repo, and then delete the branch.

Git Is Better For Branching

Developers prefer Git because of its effective branching model.

Access Controls

Access control is another key feature in the Git vs. SVN debate.

How It Works

By default, Git assumes that all the contributors have the same permissions.

On the other hand, SVN allows you to specify read and write access controls per file level and per directory level.

It’s a Toss-Up

Depending on your needs, either Git or SVN could be a better choice. Both systems take different approaches when it comes to permissions and access.

Auditability

Auditability is another thing that’s different in Git vs. SVN.

How It Works

With SVN, the repository’s change history is pretty consistent. To make any change to the repository’s history, you need access to the central server. Changes are tracked at the file level.

Git’s distributed nature allows anyone to change any part of their local repository’s history. Changes are tracked at a repository level. Although pushing a changed history is heavily discouraged, it can happen. This causes problems if other developers are relying on particular changes.

In Git, the complete history of the repository is “backed up” each time a developer clones it to their computer. This natural backup mechanism is useless if neglected.

It’s a Toss-Up

You could choose Git or SVN for auditability — as long as you back it up. Making regular backups is highly encouraged with both solutions. You don’t want to be on the receiving end of a server crash without a recent copy of your shared server.

Storage Requirements

Storage is similar in Git and SVN. The disk space usage is equal for both Git and SVN repositories. The difference is what type of files can be stored in the repositories.

How It Works

Git repositories can’t handle large binary files.

SVN repositories can handle large binary files, in addition to code. Storing large binary files in SVN would take up less space than in Git.

SVN Is Better For Binaries

SVN is better at storing binary files.

Usability

Usability is another differentiator between SVN and Git.

How It Works

SVN uses the command line as the primary user interface. It is more readily used by non-programmers who want to version non-code assets. Learn more about SVN commands.

Git also uses the command line as the primary user interface. But the syntax in Git can overwhelm beginners.

SVN is Easier to Learn

SVN often considered easier to learn. This is especially true for non-technical users. They are able to catch on to common operations quickly.

Back to top

CONFIG FILE-ONLY OPTIONS

svn.noMetadata
svn-remote.

.noMetadata

This gets rid of the git-svn-id: lines at the end of every commit.

This option can only be used for one-shot imports as git svn will not be able to fetch again without metadata. Additionally, if you lose your $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.* files, git svn will not be able to rebuild them.

The git svn log command will not work on repositories using this, either. Using this conflicts with the useSvmProps option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.

This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down old references to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug reports, and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider git-filter-repo instead. filter-repo also allows reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship info for non-“svn.authorsFile” users.

svn.useSvmProps
svn-remote.

.useSvmProps

This allows git svn to re-map repository URLs and UUIDs from mirrors created using SVN::Mirror (or svk) for metadata.

If an SVN revision has a property, “svm:headrev”, it is likely that the revision was created by SVN::Mirror (also used by SVK). The property contains a repository UUID and a revision. We want to make it look like we are mirroring the original URL, so introduce a helper function that returns the original identity URL and UUID, and use it when generating metadata in commit messages.

svn.useSvnsyncProps
svn-remote.

.useSvnsyncprops

Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users of the svnsync(1) command distributed with SVN 1.4.x and later.

svn-remote.

.rewriteRoot

This allows users to create repositories from alternate URLs. For example, an administrator could run git svn on the server locally (accessing via file://) but wish to distribute the repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the metadata so users of it will see the public URL.

svn-remote.

.rewriteUUID

Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need to remap the UUID manually. This may be useful in situations where the original UUID is not available via either useSvmProps or useSvnsyncProps.

svn-remote.

.pushurl

Similar to Git’s


remote.

.pushurl


, this key is designed to be used in cases where url points to an SVN repository via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same repository. Unlike commiturl, pushurl is a base path. If either commiturl or pushurl could be used, commiturl takes precedence.

svn.brokenSymlinkWorkaround

This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround broken symlinks checked into SVN by broken clients. Set this option to “false” if you track a SVN repository with many empty blobs that are not symlinks. This option may be changed while git svn is running and take effect on the next revision fetched. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be “true”.

svn.pathnameencoding

This instructs git svn to recode pathnames to a given encoding. It can be used by windows users and by those who work in non-utf8 locales to avoid corrupted file names with non-ASCII characters. Valid encodings are the ones supported by Perl’s Encode module.

svn-remote.

.automkdirs

Normally, the “git svn clone” and “git svn rebase” commands attempt to recreate empty directories that are in the Subversion repository. If this option is set to “false”, then empty directories will only be created if the “git svn mkdirs” command is run explicitly. If unset, git svn assumes this option to be “true”.

Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps options all affect the metadata generated and used by git svn; they must be set in the configuration file before any history is imported and these settings should never be changed once they are set.

Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote section because they affect the git-svn-id: metadata line, except for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be used together.

#5 Làm Việc Nhóm Với Git | Git Siêu Dễ Cho Beginners Từ A Đến Z
#5 Làm Việc Nhóm Với Git | Git Siêu Dễ Cho Beginners Từ A Đến Z

REBASEPULL/MERGE

Prefer to use git svn rebase or git rebase, rather than git pull or git merge to synchronize unintegrated commits with a git svn branch. Doing so will keep the history of unintegrated commits linear with respect to the upstream SVN repository and allow the use of the preferred git svn dcommit subcommand to push unintegrated commits back into SVN.

Originally, git svn recommended that developers pulled or merged from
the git svn branch. This was because the author favored

git svn set-tree B

to commit a single head rather than the

git svn set-tree A..B

notation to commit multiple commits. Use of
git pull or git merge with

git svn set-tree A..B

will cause non-linear
history to be flattened when committing into SVN and this can lead to merge
commits unexpectedly reversing previous commits in SVN.

COMMANDS

init

Initializes an empty Git repository with additional metadata directories for git svn. The Subversion URL may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full URL arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target directory to operate on can be specified as a second argument. Normally this command initializes the current directory.

-T
–trunk=
-b
–branches=
-s
–stdlayout

These are optional command-line options for init. Each of these flags can point to a relative repository path (–tags=project/tags) or a full url (–tags=https://foo.org/project/tags). You can specify more than one –tags and/or –branches options, in case your Subversion repository places tags or branches under multiple paths. The option –stdlayout is a shorthand way of setting trunk,tags,branches as the relative paths, which is the Subversion default. If any of the other options are given as well, they take precedence.

–no-metadata

Set the noMetadata option in the [svn-remote] config. This option is not recommended, please read the svn.noMetadata section of this manpage before using this option.

–use-svm-props

Set the useSvmProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

–use-svnsync-props

Set the useSvnsyncProps option in the [svn-remote] config.

–rewrite-root=

Set the rewriteRoot option in the [svn-remote] config.

–rewrite-uuid=

Set the rewriteUUID option in the [svn-remote] config.

–username=

For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http, https, and plain svn), specify the username. For other transports (e.g.


svn+ssh://

), you must include the username in the URL, e.g.

svn+ssh://[email protected]/project

–prefix=

This allows one to specify a prefix which is prepended to the names of remotes if trunk/branches/tags are specified. The prefix does not automatically include a trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the argument if that is what you want. If –branches/-b is specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash. Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is strongly encouraged in any case, as your SVN-tracking refs will then be located at “refs/remotes/$prefix/”, which is compatible with Git’s own remote-tracking ref layout (refs/remotes/$remote/). Setting a prefix is also useful if you wish to track multiple projects that share a common repository. By default, the prefix is set to origin/.

Note

Before Git v2.0, the default prefix was “” (no prefix). This meant that SVN-tracking refs were put at “refs/remotes/*”, which is incompatible with how Git’s own remote-tracking refs are organized. If you still want the old default, you can get it by passing


--prefix ""

on the command line (

--prefix=""

may not work if your Perl’s Getopt::Long is < v2.37).

–ignore-refs=

When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of


--ignore-refs

.

–ignore-paths=

When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of


--ignore-paths

.

–include-paths=

When passed to init or clone this regular expression will be preserved as a config key. See fetch for a description of


--include-paths

.

–no-minimize-url

When tracking multiple directories (using –stdlayout, –branches, or –tags options), git svn will attempt to connect to the root (or highest allowed level) of the Subversion repository. This default allows better tracking of history if entire projects are moved within a repository, but may cause issues on repositories where read access restrictions are in place. Passing


--no-minimize-url

will allow git svn to accept URLs as-is without attempting to connect to a higher level directory. This option is off by default when only one URL/branch is tracked (it would do little good).

fetch

Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are tracking. The name of the [svn-remote “…”] section in the $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional command-line argument.

This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.* in the FILES section below for details).

–localtime

Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of UTC. This makes git log (even without –date=local) show the same times that


svn log

would in the local time zone.

This doesn’t interfere with interoperating with the Subversion repository you cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git repository to be able to interoperate with someone else’s local Git repository, either don’t use this option or you should both use it in the same local time zone.

–parent

Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.

–ignore-refs=

Ignore refs for branches or tags matching the Perl regular expression. A “negative look-ahead assertion” like


^refs/remotes/origin/(?!tags/wanted-tag|wanted-branch).*$

can be used to allow only certain refs.

config key: svn-remote.

.ignore-refs

If the ignore-refs configuration key is set, and the command-line option is also given, both regular expressions will be used.

–ignore-paths=

This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout from SVN. The


--ignore-paths

option should match for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase, etc) on a given repository.

config key: svn-remote.

.ignore-paths

If the ignore-paths configuration key is set, and the command-line option is also given, both regular expressions will be used.

Examples:

–include-paths=

This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will cause the inclusion of only matching paths from checkout from SVN. The


--include-paths

option should match for every fetch (including automatic fetches due to clone, dcommit, rebase, etc) on a given repository.

--ignore-paths

takes precedence over

--include-paths

.

config key: svn-remote.

.include-paths

–log-window-size=

Fetch

log entries per request when scanning Subversion history. The default is 100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger values may be needed for clone/fetch to complete in reasonable time. But overly large values may lead to higher memory usage and request timeouts.

clone

Runs init and fetch. It will automatically create a directory based on the basename of the URL passed to it; or if a second argument is passed; it will create a directory and work within that. It accepts all arguments that the init and fetch commands accept; with the exception of


--fetch-all

and

--parent

. After a repository is cloned, the fetch command will be able to update revisions without affecting the working tree; and the rebase command will be able to update the working tree with the latest changes.

–preserve-empty-dirs

Create a placeholder file in the local Git repository for each empty directory fetched from Subversion. This includes directories that become empty by removing all entries in the Subversion repository (but not the directory itself). The placeholder files are also tracked and removed when no longer necessary.

–placeholder-filename=

Set the name of placeholder files created by –preserve-empty-dirs. Default: “.gitignore”

rebase

This fetches revisions from the SVN parent of the current HEAD and rebases the current (uncommitted to SVN) work against it.

This works similarly to


svn update

or git pull except that it preserves linear history with git rebase instead of git merge for ease of dcommitting with git svn.

This accepts all options that git svn fetch and git rebase accept. However,


--fetch-all

only fetches from the current [svn-remote], and not all [svn-remote] definitions.

Like git rebase; this requires that the working tree be clean and have no uncommitted changes.

This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.* in the FILES section below for details).

dcommit

Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create a revision in SVN for each commit in Git.

When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name) is specified as an argument, the subcommand works on the specified branch, not on the current branch.

Use of dcommit is preferred to set-tree (below).

–no-rebase

After committing, do not rebase or reset.

–commit-url

Commit to this SVN URL (the full path). This is intended to allow existing git svn repositories created with one transport method (e.g.


svn://

or

http://

for anonymous read) to be reused if a user is later given access to an alternate transport method (e.g.

svn+ssh://

or

https://

) for commit.

config key: svn-remote.

.commiturl config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.

.commiturl options)

Note that the SVN URL of the commiturl config key includes the SVN branch. If you rather want to set the commit URL for an entire SVN repository use svn-remote.

.pushurl instead.

Using this option for any other purpose (don’t ask) is very strongly discouraged.

–mergeinfo=

Add the given merge information during the dcommit (e.g.


--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10"

). All svn server versions can store this information (as a property), and svn clients starting from version 1.5 can make use of it. To specify merge information from multiple branches, use a single space character between the branches (

--mergeinfo="/branches/foo:1-10 /branches/bar:3,5-6,8"

)

config key: svn.pushmergeinfo

This option will cause git-svn to attempt to automatically populate the svn:mergeinfo property in the SVN repository when possible. Currently, this can only be done when dcommitting non-fast-forward merges where all parents but the first have already been pushed into SVN.

–interactive

Ask the user to confirm that a patch set should actually be sent to SVN. For each patch, one may answer “yes” (accept this patch), “no” (discard this patch), “all” (accept all patches), or “quit”.

git svn dcommit returns immediately if answer is “no” or “quit”, without committing anything to SVN.

branch

Create a branch in the SVN repository.

-m
–message

Allows to specify the commit message.

-t
–tag

Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir specified during git svn init.

-d
–destination=

If more than one –branches (or –tags) option was given to the init or clone command, you must provide the location of the branch (or tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. specifies which path to use to create the branch or tag and should match the pattern on the left-hand side of one of the configured branches or tags refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the commands

git config –get-all svn-remote.

.branches git config –get-all svn-remote.

.tags

where

is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to init (or “svn” by default).

–username

Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option overrides the username configuration property.

–commit-url

Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion repository. This is useful in cases where the source SVN repository is read-only. This option overrides configuration property commiturl.

git config –get-all svn-remote.

.commiturl

–parents

Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter –parents on svn cp commands and is useful for non-standard repository layouts.

tag

Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for branch -t.

log

This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn users refer to -r/–revision numbers.

The following features from ‘svn log’ are supported:

-r

[:
–revision=

[:

is supported, non-numeric args are not: HEAD, NEXT, BASE, PREV, etc …

-v
–verbose

it’s not completely compatible with the –verbose output in svn log, but reasonably close.

–limit=

is NOT the same as –max-count, doesn’t count merged/excluded commits

–incremental

supported

New features:

Note

SVN itself only stores times in UTC and nothing else. The regular svn client converts the UTC time to the local time (or based on the TZ= environment). This command has the same behaviour.

Any other arguments are passed directly to git log

blame

Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of ‘svn blame’ by default. Like the SVN blame command, local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored; the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown arguments are passed directly to git blame.

find-rev

When given an SVN revision number of the form rN, returns the corresponding Git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.

-B
–before

Don’t require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find the commit corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the current branch) at the specified revision.

-A
–after

Don’t require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is not an exact match return the closest match searching forward in the history.

set-tree

You should consider using dcommit instead of this command. Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on your imported fetch data being up to date. This makes absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree or commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place independently of git svn functions.

create-ignore

Recursively finds the svn:ignore property on directories and creates matching .gitignore files. The resulting files are staged to be committed, but are not committed. Use -r/–revision to refer to a specific revision.

show-ignore

Recursively finds and lists the svn:ignore property on directories. The output is suitable for appending to the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.

mkdirs

Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/

/unhandled.log files. Empty directories are automatically recreated when using “git svn clone” and “git svn rebase”, so “mkdirs” is intended for use after commands like “git checkout” or “git reset”. (See the svn-remote.

.automkdirs config file option for more information.)

commit-diff

Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the command-line. This command does not rely on being inside a


git svn init

-ed repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the URL of the target Subversion repository. The final argument (URL) may be omitted if you are working from a git svn-aware repository (that has been

init

-ed with git svn). The -r

option is required for this.

The commit message is supplied either directly with the


-m

or

-F

option, or indirectly from the tag or commit when the second tree-ish denotes such an object, or it is requested by invoking an editor (see

--edit

option below).

info

Shows information about a file or directory similar to what ‘svn info’ provides. Does not currently support a -r/–revision argument. Use the –url option to output only the value of the URL: field.

proplist

Lists the properties stored in the Subversion repository about a given file or directory. Use -r/–revision to refer to a specific Subversion revision.

propget

Gets the Subversion property given as the first argument, for a file. A specific revision can be specified with -r/–revision.

propset

Sets the Subversion property given as the first argument, to the value given as the second argument for the file given as the third argument.

Example:

git svn propset svn:keywords “FreeBSD=%H” devel/py-tipper/Makefile

This will set the property svn:keywords to FreeBSD=%H for the file devel/py-tipper/Makefile.

show-externals

Shows the Subversion externals. Use -r/–revision to specify a specific revision.

gc

Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/

/unhandled.log files and remove $GIT_DIR/svn/

/index files.

reset

Undoes the effects of fetch back to the specified revision. This allows you to re-fetch an SVN revision. Normally the contents of an SVN revision should never change and reset should not be necessary. However, if SVN permissions change, or if you alter your –ignore-paths option, a fetch may fail with “not found in commit” (file not previously visible) or “checksum mismatch” (missed a modification). If the problem file cannot be ignored forever (with –ignore-paths) the only way to repair the repo is to use reset.

Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see $GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.* in the FILES section below for details). Follow reset with a fetch and then git reset or git rebase to move local branches onto the new tree.

-r
–revision=

Specify the most recent revision to keep. All later revisions are discarded.

-p
–parent

Discard the specified revision as well, keeping the nearest parent instead.

Example:

Assume you have local changes in “master”, but you need to refetch “r2”.

r1—r2—r3 remotes/git-svn \ A—B master

Fix the ignore-paths or SVN permissions problem that caused “r2” to be incomplete in the first place. Then:

git svn reset -r2 -p git svn fetch

r1—r2′–r3′ remotes/git-svn \ r2—r3—A—B master

Then fixup “master” with git rebase. Do NOT use git merge or your history will not be compatible with a future dcommit!

git rebase –onto remotes/git-svn A^ master

r1—r2′–r3′ remotes/git-svn \ A’–B’ master

Git,SVN,Bitbucket,Github Explained
Git,SVN,Bitbucket,Github Explained

Version Control Systems: Subversion vs Git

As an aspiring software engineer or full-stack developer, you may have heard of—or started tinkering with—either of two popular version control systems (VCS): Git and Subversion (SVN). In fact, this isn’t the first time we’ve shared a post on the subject. While they both serve the same purpose, which is to manage changes to software code, they have different approaches and philosophies.

In this article, we’ll take a closer look at Subversion vs Git (svn vs git), comparing their similarities and differences, and explore why you might choose one over the other. Spoiler alert: these days, in our distributed workplaces, it seems most programmers use Git. But that’s not the end of the story. And the choice may boil down to how a company or team does its development work.

What is Git?

Git is an open-source distributed version control system that helps developers manage their source code. Created in 2005 by Finnish software engineer Linus Torvalds (perhaps best known as the lead developer of the free, open source Linux operating system), Git:

  • Is designed to be fast and efficient, allowing developers to work on projects of all sizes easily and efficiently.
  • Stores changes to code in “commits,” which are essentially snapshots of the code at a particular moment in time.
  • Uses commits that are stored locally on the developer’s machine and can be shared with others using Git’s push and pull commands.

One advantage of Git is the ability to branch and how the branches are stored, a development approach which isolates lines of code development as separate features to prevent compromising the main branch. Features can then be merged back into the main code when ready.

Who uses Git and why?

Git has become one of the most popular version control systems among developers, especially those working on open-source projects. Git is well-suited for collaborative development, as it allows multiple developers to work on the same codebase simultaneously. Additionally, Git’s distributed nature means that developers can work on code even when they don’t have access to a central server. Git’s distributed, collaborative qualities make it equally attractive to dev teams at large businesses and programming instructors and students.

What is Subversion?

Subversion, also known as SVN, is a centralized version control system that was first released in 2000. It is developed and maintained by the web server software platform Apache. Unlike Git, which is distributed, SVN, which is also open source:

  • Uses a central repository to safely store code changes and maintain all versions of a project.
  • Requires developers to check out code from the central repository, make changes, then check their changes back into the repository.
  • Offers whole directory versioning, versioned metadata (properties), consistent data handling, and the ability to manage contributors to control revision access.

Subversion is similar to an older VCS called Concurrent Versions System, though SVN is faster and has more features.

Who Uses Subversion and Why?

Though Git is more widely used, Subversion is still used by many large organizations, especially those that work on large projects requiring more managed file access or that use a number of binary files. SVN’s centralized nature makes it easier to manage large codebases, as there is only one central repository to manage.

Additionally, SVN’s strict control over code changes can help prevent conflicts between developers working on the same codebase, and its centralized model helps manage contributors by controlling codebase access (though Git works in combination with GitHub or GitLab to manage access). Some have found Subversion to be easier to use (since everyone works on one repository rather than several, distributed repositories) and easier for managers because of its top-down approach, and secure—though SVN has become more niche over time and in an increasingly distributed tech world.

How are SVN and Git the same and how are they different?

Both Git and SVN are version control systems that allow developers to manage changes to code. Ultimately, they have somewhat different philosophies and approaches. Here are some of the key differences:

Centralized vs. distributed: SVN is a centralized VCS, while Git is distributed. This means that SVN relies on a central repository called a “trunk” to store code changes, while Git allows developers to store changes locally and share them with others.

Branching and merging: Git’s distributed nature makes it easier to create branches and merge changes between them. SVN also supports branching and merging, but historically it has been seen as more difficult to manage or time consuming than Git because of the way branches are publicly stored as copies of project trees in Subversion. It can come down to understanding how to use the system since they do things differently.

Performance: Git is generally faster and more efficient than SVN, especially when it comes to handling large codebases.

Learning curve: Git has a steeper learning curve than SVN, due in part to its distributed nature and complex command-line interface—but there are a lot of third-party tools to improve the user experience such as those that provide a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for using Git. With easier contributions and the ability to manage contributors, SVN might be more approachable.

Why choose Git or SVN?

Choosing between Git and SVN depends on your specific needs and preferences. If you’re working on a small project with only a few contributors, SVN may be a good choice, as it’s easier to manage and has a lower learning curve. However, if you’re working on a large project with many contributors, Git’s distributed nature and efficient performance may be more suitable, though both version control systems can function no matter the project’s size.

It may be worth nothing that Git and Subversion are both used in cloud computing to facilitate version control, collaborative development, and automated deployment processes. As we have seen, Git is more widely adopted for its distributed model, while Subversion provides centralized version control capabilities.

Additionally, if you’re planning to contribute to open-source projects, it’s almost certain that you’ll need to use Git, as it’s the most popular VCS among open-source developers. Git’s distributed nature also makes it easier to contribute to open-source projects, as you can make changes locally and share them with others without needing to be granted write access to the central repository or maintain a direct connection to a central server.

When evaluating Subversion vs. Git for you or your business, each has pros and cons relative to your needs. The choice between them ultimately comes down to factors of management, contributors, and accessibility.

If your development shop is top-down and can coordinate client-server accessibility to a centralized repository, Subversion may be the right tool.

For large, distributed teams working locally offline (without that direct connection), Git may be the better choice. Of course, you can change your mind via a subversion git migration one direction or the other. Simpler “tip” migrations move just the latest code in use while more complicated migrations move version history and other metadata.

Bootcamps such as Hackbright Academy’s software engineering programs teach Git as part of their full-stack curriculum, meaning graduates will emerge with deeper knowledge and a wide range of skills helpful for pursuing a variety of tech and tech-adjacent career paths.

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What is SVN version control system

Choosing the right version control system to work with your files might seem to be a complicated task. To help you select
the version control system that will meet your objectives, we suggest that you consider a Subversion (SVN). Why is it worth
your attention? First, SVN is an open-source and centralized version control system. Due to its more secure centralized approach,
it is easier to control the coding process, and manage access to modified files. Second, you do not need to have a lot of space
to store the files: You can keep only files to be updated on your local computer and then commit them to the server.

In the article, you can read about how SVN works, what advantages and disadvantages it has, and what basic commands you can execute
to work with the files. And to make it easier for you to manage changes that you make and then commit to the SVN repository,
you can use dbForge Source Control for SQL Server. In the article,
we explain why it is better to use this database change management tool.

Basic commands

You can perform operations either through the command-line interface or with the help of an SVN client. Here is the list of some basic SVN commands
that help you easily and efficiently cope with data change management.


  • svn checkout/svn co URL

    Pulls source data to a local working copy from the repository. URL is a path to the data you want to check out. During the checkout,
    SVN creates a hidden .svn file that contains some repository details.

  • svn commit -m "commit reason"

    Saves the changes you have done in the working copy to the repository. In the

    -m "commit reason"

    part, you leave your comments explaining the commit.

  • svn admincreate

    Creates an empty repository.

  • svn list

    Displays all the files in the SVN repository without creating a new working copy.

  • svn add

    Adds a new file or directory to the SVN repository. Note that the file will be added after you commit it to the repository.

  • svn delete

    Removes the file from the working copy or repository. Note that the file will be deleted from the repository after you have done a commit.

  • svn status

    Displays a status of the working copy (modified, added, deleted).

  • svn log

    Displays log messages from the repository.

  • svn move

    Transfers a file from one directory to another, or renames a file.

  • svn update path

    Gets the latest changes from the repository to your working copy.

    path

    is a revision with which you want to synchronize your working copy. If you do not specify the revision, the changes will be retrieved from the HEAD revision.

  • svn diff

    Displays the differences between two revisions: your working copy and the copy from the central SVN repository.
Centralized vs Distributed Version Control in 90 seconds
Centralized vs Distributed Version Control in 90 seconds

HANDLING OF SVN BRANCHES

If git svn is configured to fetch branches (and –follow-branches is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one SVN branch, where the additional branches have names of the form branchname@nnn (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional branches are created if git svn cannot find a parent commit for the first commit in an SVN branch, to connect the branch to the history of the other branches.

Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists
of a copy operation. git svn will read this commit to get the SVN
revision the branch was created from. It will then try to find the
Git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
parent of the branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable
Git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by git
svn (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with

--revision

), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked
by git svn (such as a branch that is not tracked at all, or a
subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases, git svn will still
create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the
branch was copied from and create appropriate Git commits. This is
indicated by the message “Initializing parent:

“.

Additionally, it will create a special branch named

@

, where

is the SVN revision number the branch was copied from. This branch will point to the newly created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple such branches with an @.


Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a single SVN revision.

An example: in an SVN repository with a standard trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory trunk/sub is created in r.100. In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/. git svn clone -s will then create a branch sub. It will also create new Git commits for r.100 through r.199 and use these as the history of branch sub. Thus there will be two Git commits for each revision from r.100 to r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally, it will create a branch sub@200 pointing to the new parent commit of branch sub (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).

GitSVN Commands

Here’s a quick comparison of Git vs. SVN commands — and how to use them.

Task

SVN Commands

Git Commands

Create a new repository.

svnadmin create

git init

Copy files into the client workspace.

svn checkout

git clone or git fetch

Send changes to the depot.

svn commit

git commit

Add a new file.

svn import

git add

Compare changes to files.

svn diff

git diff

More Commands

Back to top

Difference Between | difference between GIT and SVN
Difference Between | difference between GIT and SVN

BASIC EXAMPLES

Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project (ignoring tags and branches):

# Clone a repo (like git clone): git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project/trunk # Enter the newly cloned directory: cd trunk # You should be on master branch, double-check with ‘git branch’ git branch # Do some work and commit locally to Git: git commit … # Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the # latest changes in SVN: git svn rebase # Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN, # as well as automatically updating your working HEAD: git svn dcommit # Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file: git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude

Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project (complete with a trunk, tags and branches):

# Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone): git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project –stdlayout –prefix svn/ # Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout: git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag –prefix svn/ # View all branches and tags you have cloned: git branch -r # Create a new branch in SVN git svn branch waldo # Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing ‘trunk’ # with the appropriate name): git reset –hard svn/trunk # You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time. The usage # of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.

The initial git svn clone can be quite time-consuming (especially for large Subversion repositories). If multiple people (or one person with multiple machines) want to use git svn to interact with the same Subversion repository, you can do the initial git svn clone to a repository on a server and have each person clone that repository with git clone:

# Do the initial import on a server ssh server “cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project [options…]” # Clone locally – make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server mkdir project cd project git init git remote add origin server:/pub/project git config –replace-all remote.origin.fetch ‘+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*’ git fetch # Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future, # we only want to use git svn for future updates git config –remove-section remote.origin # Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD # Initialize ‘git svn’ locally (be sure to use the same URL and # –stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/–prefix options as were used on server) git svn init http://svn.example.com/project [options…] # Pull the latest changes from Subversion git svn rebase

What is SVN?

Apache Subversion (SVN), is a centralized version control system. When working with this type of VCS, all project files exist on a central repository server. The central repository has a “trunk,” which contains the current, stable version of the project. When working on new features, contributors can make “branches” from the trunk. Each branch is stored in a sub-folder on the central repository. When changes are ready, a branch can be merged into the trunk.

SVN has a long and successful history and stands as a titan in the version control world. It has widespread usage for enterprise projects, with features like granular access control that make it excel in that context.

Differences between Git and SVN
Differences between Git and SVN

CAVEATS

For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion, it is recommended that all git svn users clone, fetch and dcommit directly from the SVN server, and avoid all git clone/pull/merge/push operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended method of exchanging code between Git branches and users is git format-patch and git am, or just ‘dcommit’ing to the SVN repository.

Running git merge or git pull is NOT recommended on a branch you plan to dcommit from because Subversion users cannot see any merges you’ve made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git branch that is a mirror of an SVN branch, dcommit may commit to the wrong branch.

If you do merge, note the following rule: git svn dcommit will attempt to commit on top of the SVN commit named in

git log –grep=^git-svn-id: –first-parent -1

You must therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch you want to dcommit to is the first parent of the merge. Chaos will ensue otherwise, especially if the first parent is an older commit on the same SVN branch.

git clone does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or any git svn metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with using git svn should use rsync for cloning, if cloning is to be done at all.

Since dcommit uses rebase internally, any Git branches you git push to before dcommit on will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad practice, see the git-push[1] documentation for details.

Do not use the –amend option of git-commit[1] on a change you’ve already dcommitted. It is considered bad practice to –amend commits you’ve already pushed to a remote repository for other users, and dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.

When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing
the repository layout is used (–trunk, –tags, –branches,
–stdlayout), git svn clone will create a Git repository with
completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a
copy of a complete repository, for projects with many branches it will
lead to a working copy many times larger than just the trunk. Thus for
projects using the standard directory structure (trunk/branches/tags),
it is recommended to clone with option

--stdlayout

. If the project
uses a non-standard structure, and/or if branches and tags are not
required, it is easiest to only clone one directory (typically trunk),
without giving any repository layout options. If the full history with
branches and tags is required, the options

--trunk

/

--branches

/

--tags

must be used.

When using multiple –branches or –tags, git svn does not automatically handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases, use init to set up your Git repository then, before your first fetch, edit the $GIT_DIR/config file so that the branches and tags are associated with different name spaces. For example:

branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/* branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*

CONFIGURATION

git svn stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the repository $GIT_DIR/config file. It is similar the core Git [remote] sections except fetch keys do not accept glob arguments; but they are instead handled by the branches and tags keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly configured with multiple projects glob expansions such those listed below are allowed:

[svn-remote “project-a”] url = http://server.org/svn fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/* branches = branches/release_*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/release_* branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/* tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

Keep in mind that the (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref
(right of the ) must be the farthest right path component;
however the remote wildcard may be anywhere as long as it’s an
independent path component (surrounded by or EOL). This
type of configuration is not automatically created by init and
should be manually entered with a text-editor or using git config.

Also note that only one asterisk is allowed per word. For example:

branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*

will match branches release, rese, re123se, however

branches = branches/re*s*e:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*

will produce an error.

It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:

[svn-remote “huge-project”] url = http://server.org/svn fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/* tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:

[svn-remote “messy-repo”] url = http://server.org/svn fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/* branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/* tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which location to use using the -d or –destination flag:

$ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0

Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after fetching, then $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.

What is Git and GitHub | Difference between Git and SVN (Part-1) | Java Techie
What is Git and GitHub | Difference between Git and SVN (Part-1) | Java Techie

BUGS

We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/

/unhandled.log

Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for this as it’s quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all the possible corner cases (Git doesn’t do it, either). Committing renamed and copied files is fully supported if they’re similar enough for Git to detect them.

In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag (because a tag is just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a branch). When cloning an SVN repository, git svn cannot know if such a commit to a tag will happen in the future. Thus it acts conservatively and imports all SVN tags as branches, prefixing the tag name with tags/.

How SVN works

SVN stands for Subversion. It is a centralized version control system distributed under an open-source Apache license. SVN allows multiple developers to
have the current and recent versions of data, such as source files, in sync. It keeps track of every change users make on files. Thus, you can easily restore earlier versions
and analyze the history of changes, identify who made file modifications, when, and why. This way the development is done much faster.

The workflow is the following: You check out a working copy of the files to your local computer. Then, you can make changes to the files in your working copy through an SVN client program, having access to SVN server,
and verify that everything works properly. After that, you commit the changes directly to the central server repository. SVN central server stores the history of changes to the versioned data in the form of revisions. Thus, each time you update the file, the server creates its new version. If you want
to update your local working copy with the latest changes, you need to pull the file from the central server. If you need the older version, you should roll back to the earlier revision.

Difference between Git, SVN and Mercurial version control system | #git #svn #mercurial #programming
Difference between Git, SVN and Mercurial version control system | #git #svn #mercurial #programming

Version Control Systems: Subversion vs Git

As an aspiring software engineer or full-stack developer, you may have heard of—or started tinkering with—either of two popular version control systems (VCS): Git and Subversion (SVN). In fact, this isn’t the first time we’ve shared a post on the subject. While they both serve the same purpose, which is to manage changes to software code, they have different approaches and philosophies.

In this article, we’ll take a closer look at Subversion vs Git (svn vs git), comparing their similarities and differences, and explore why you might choose one over the other. Spoiler alert: these days, in our distributed workplaces, it seems most programmers use Git. But that’s not the end of the story. And the choice may boil down to how a company or team does its development work.

What is Git?

Git is an open-source distributed version control system that helps developers manage their source code. Created in 2005 by Finnish software engineer Linus Torvalds (perhaps best known as the lead developer of the free, open source Linux operating system), Git:

  • Is designed to be fast and efficient, allowing developers to work on projects of all sizes easily and efficiently.
  • Stores changes to code in “commits,” which are essentially snapshots of the code at a particular moment in time.
  • Uses commits that are stored locally on the developer’s machine and can be shared with others using Git’s push and pull commands.

One advantage of Git is the ability to branch and how the branches are stored, a development approach which isolates lines of code development as separate features to prevent compromising the main branch. Features can then be merged back into the main code when ready.

Who uses Git and why?

Git has become one of the most popular version control systems among developers, especially those working on open-source projects. Git is well-suited for collaborative development, as it allows multiple developers to work on the same codebase simultaneously. Additionally, Git’s distributed nature means that developers can work on code even when they don’t have access to a central server. Git’s distributed, collaborative qualities make it equally attractive to dev teams at large businesses and programming instructors and students.

What is Subversion?

Subversion, also known as SVN, is a centralized version control system that was first released in 2000. It is developed and maintained by the web server software platform Apache. Unlike Git, which is distributed, SVN, which is also open source:

  • Uses a central repository to safely store code changes and maintain all versions of a project.
  • Requires developers to check out code from the central repository, make changes, then check their changes back into the repository.
  • Offers whole directory versioning, versioned metadata (properties), consistent data handling, and the ability to manage contributors to control revision access.

Subversion is similar to an older VCS called Concurrent Versions System, though SVN is faster and has more features.

Who Uses Subversion and Why?

Though Git is more widely used, Subversion is still used by many large organizations, especially those that work on large projects requiring more managed file access or that use a number of binary files. SVN’s centralized nature makes it easier to manage large codebases, as there is only one central repository to manage.

Additionally, SVN’s strict control over code changes can help prevent conflicts between developers working on the same codebase, and its centralized model helps manage contributors by controlling codebase access (though Git works in combination with GitHub or GitLab to manage access). Some have found Subversion to be easier to use (since everyone works on one repository rather than several, distributed repositories) and easier for managers because of its top-down approach, and secure—though SVN has become more niche over time and in an increasingly distributed tech world.

How are SVN and Git the same and how are they different?

Both Git and SVN are version control systems that allow developers to manage changes to code. Ultimately, they have somewhat different philosophies and approaches. Here are some of the key differences:

Centralized vs. distributed: SVN is a centralized VCS, while Git is distributed. This means that SVN relies on a central repository called a “trunk” to store code changes, while Git allows developers to store changes locally and share them with others.

Branching and merging: Git’s distributed nature makes it easier to create branches and merge changes between them. SVN also supports branching and merging, but historically it has been seen as more difficult to manage or time consuming than Git because of the way branches are publicly stored as copies of project trees in Subversion. It can come down to understanding how to use the system since they do things differently.

Performance: Git is generally faster and more efficient than SVN, especially when it comes to handling large codebases.

Learning curve: Git has a steeper learning curve than SVN, due in part to its distributed nature and complex command-line interface—but there are a lot of third-party tools to improve the user experience such as those that provide a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for using Git. With easier contributions and the ability to manage contributors, SVN might be more approachable.

Why choose Git or SVN?

Choosing between Git and SVN depends on your specific needs and preferences. If you’re working on a small project with only a few contributors, SVN may be a good choice, as it’s easier to manage and has a lower learning curve. However, if you’re working on a large project with many contributors, Git’s distributed nature and efficient performance may be more suitable, though both version control systems can function no matter the project’s size.

It may be worth nothing that Git and Subversion are both used in cloud computing to facilitate version control, collaborative development, and automated deployment processes. As we have seen, Git is more widely adopted for its distributed model, while Subversion provides centralized version control capabilities.

Additionally, if you’re planning to contribute to open-source projects, it’s almost certain that you’ll need to use Git, as it’s the most popular VCS among open-source developers. Git’s distributed nature also makes it easier to contribute to open-source projects, as you can make changes locally and share them with others without needing to be granted write access to the central repository or maintain a direct connection to a central server.

When evaluating Subversion vs. Git for you or your business, each has pros and cons relative to your needs. The choice between them ultimately comes down to factors of management, contributors, and accessibility.

If your development shop is top-down and can coordinate client-server accessibility to a centralized repository, Subversion may be the right tool.

For large, distributed teams working locally offline (without that direct connection), Git may be the better choice. Of course, you can change your mind via a subversion git migration one direction or the other. Simpler “tip” migrations move just the latest code in use while more complicated migrations move version history and other metadata.

Bootcamps such as Hackbright Academy’s software engineering programs teach Git as part of their full-stack curriculum, meaning graduates will emerge with deeper knowledge and a wide range of skills helpful for pursuing a variety of tech and tech-adjacent career paths.

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Git vs SVN: What Is The Difference?

Git vs. SVN — what is the difference? Here we will explain the difference between the two, as well as what is Git SVN?

➡️ Skip Git and SVN — Try Helix Core

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Git vs SVN: Pros and Cons

To help you understand how these two version control solutions match up, this section walks you through the pros and cons of each.

Git Pros and Cons

Git’s pros are the following:

  • Operates locally. Contributors work on clones of the main repository, which they can continue to work on offline, without a network connection to the main repository. Contributors only need to connect when changes are ready to be pushed. This also helps limit network traffic to the main repository.

  • Avoids having a single point of failure. The repository is distributed in local copies, so there is less to worry about if a failure occurs on the main repository. The main repository can be restored from one of the local copies.

  • Handles merging from multiple contributors effectively. Contributors all work independently on their copies of the main repository. Git then provides a robust system for reconciling and merging each contributor’s changes. Staging is part of this, allowing contributors to focus on particular features without affecting others.

Git’s cons are the following:

  • Has a higher learning curve. Using Git to collaborate on a project requires that you make your changes locally, stage those changes, and merge the changes back into the main branch. This process can get complicated, especially for non-technical users.

  • Lacks granular access control. Git supports applying limits on a contributor’s ability to create branches and merge changes on the main repository. However, you cannot restrict access to specific parts of the repository. Anyone with access to the repository has access to everything in the repository, with local repositories being clones of the entire codebase.

  • Does not effectively handle storing large binary files. Git cannot compress these files effectively, meaning that the repository size can grow exponentially with each change to a large binary file.

SVN Pros and Cons

SVN’s pros are the following:

  • Takes an easier approach. The path between creating a new feature branch and merging it into the trunk is relatively short and intuitive to grasp. This makes SVN a tool that requires less training when getting started and can be effectively taken up by non-technical contributors.

  • Facilitates a top-down approach. Since everything is centralized in an SVN repository, there is a single instance of the entire repository. This allows for granular repository access control. Each contributor’s access can be limited to particular directories and files. SVN is a good choice when you need to manage security hierarchies within a repository.

  • Efficiently stores large binary files. Teams that need to store binary files, especially when those binary files change frequently, can do so without worrying about exponential storage increases with each change. While this is not a concern for every team, this feature can be a significant boon for some workflows and version control use cases.

SVN’s cons are the following:

  • Provides limited offline capabilities. Everything operates on a centralized repository using a client-server approach. When contributors are offline and unable to access the server, they essentially lose the ability to contribute. This also entails a higher level of traffic to the main repository’s server, since contributors have to access it constantly.

  • The centralized repository server can be a single point of failure. Since contributors do not make local copies of the entire repository, unless a backup copy is made, there is only one instance of the entire repository. If an issue occurs with the instance, such as data corruption, it can have dire repercussions on a software development project.

Advantages of Git Over SVN

The ability to work locally and offline is one major advantage to Git. SVN requires contributors to be connected to the main repository server, which essentially eliminates working offline.

Git also outperforms SVN when it comes to merging and conflict resolution. Git has been designed for an open-source setting where numerous contributors may be working on the same parts of a codebase. To allow for this type of collaboration, Git has built up a robust system for resolving merge conflicts that makes the process smoother, and more manageable.

Git’s distributed model of version control helps mitigate the potential for loss of the main repository. Since contributors clone the main repository, the risk of completely losing your main repository is greatly reduced. On the other hand, SVN’s centralized model of version control creates the potential for a single point of failure should anything happen to the main repository.

Advantages of SVN Over Git

SVN’s centralized repository model makes it easier to manage contributions and contributors. Git does not support codebase access restrictions — a contributor who has access to the repository has access to the entire repository. SVN, by contrast, provides granular control, allowing for limits on particular contributors down to the directory, and file levels.

SVN also makes contributing easier. Git has robust conflict handling, but its system can often be daunting for newcomers. SVN’s system is more approachable, because the path between creating a new feature and merging it into the trunk is shorter and simpler.

SVN wins out on some performance considerations. It handles network traffic exceptionally well. So, while contributors may have to be connected to the server to complete work, the network load for this is managed efficiently. Also, SVN compresses and stores large binaries quite efficiently. If your project includes large binary files, you might consider using SVN.

How to convert Svn To Git Using svnserve, VisualSVN, svnadmin dump, and git svn
How to convert Svn To Git Using svnserve, VisualSVN, svnadmin dump, and git svn

Preserving history

SVN is configured to assume that the history of a project never changes. Git allows you to modify previous commits and changes using tools like

git rebase

.

GitHub supports Subversion clients, which may produce some unexpected results if you’re using both Git and SVN on the same project. If you’ve manipulated Git’s commit history, those same commits will always remain within SVN’s history. If you accidentally committed some sensitive data, we have an article that will help you remove it from Git’s history.

Note: Subversion support will be removed with GitHub version 3.13. For more information, see the GitHub blog.

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Lệnh Git so với lệnh SVN

Git đã trở thành hệ thống kiểm soát phiên bản chiếm ưu thế trong những năm gần đây, đặc biệt là trong cộng đồng nguồn mở, trong khi SVN đã suy tàn. Nếu bạn chuyển từ SVN sang Git, đây là tài liệu tham khảo nhanh so sánh các lệnh phổ biến.

Bảng so sánh các lệnh Git-Subversion

Lệnh Thao tác Subversion
git clone Sao chép một kho lưu trữ svn checkout
git commit Ghi lại các thay đổi vào lịch sử tệp svn commit
git show Xem chi tiết cam kết svn cat
git status Xem trạng thái svn status
git diff Xem khác biệt svn diff
git log Xem nhật kí svn log
git add Thêm svn add
git mv Di chuyển svn mv
git rm Xóa svn rm
git reset Hủy thay đổi svn revert1
git branch Tạo một nhánh svn copy2
git checkout Chuyển đổi nhánh svn switch
git merge Hợp nhất svn merge
git tag Tạo một thẻ svn copy2
git pull Cập nhật svn update
git fetch Cập nhật svn update
git push Những thay đổi được phản ánh trên kho lưu trữ từ xa svn commit3
.gitignore Bỏ qua danh sách tệp .svnignore
  1. Khôi phục ở SVN hủy bỏ thay đổi, nhưng Khôi phục trong Git phủ nhận thay đổi.
  2. Nhánh và thẻ giống nhau trong SVN nhưng khác nhau trong Git.
  3. SVN không có khái niệm về kho lưu trữ cục bộ so với kho lưu trữ từ xa; theo đó, một cam kết được phản ánh trực tiếp trong kho lưu trữ từ xa.

CONFIGURATION

git svn stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the repository $GIT_DIR/config file. It is similar the core Git [remote] sections except fetch keys do not accept glob arguments; but they are instead handled by the branches and tags keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly configured with multiple projects glob expansions such those listed below are allowed:

[svn-remote “project-a”] url = http://server.org/svn fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk branches = branches/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/* branches = branches/release_*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/release_* branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/* tags = tags/*/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

Keep in mind that the (asterisk) wildcard of the local ref
(right of the ) must be the farthest right path component;
however the remote wildcard may be anywhere as long as it’s an
independent path component (surrounded by or EOL). This
type of configuration is not automatically created by init and
should be manually entered with a text-editor or using git config.

Also note that only one asterisk is allowed per word. For example:

branches = branches/re*se:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*

will match branches release, rese, re123se, however

branches = branches/re*s*e:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*

will produce an error.

It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:

[svn-remote “huge-project”] url = http://server.org/svn fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/* tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:

[svn-remote “messy-repo”] url = http://server.org/svn fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/* branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/* tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*

Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which location to use using the -d or –destination flag:

$ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0

Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after fetching, then $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.

git vs svn - fundamental differences
git vs svn – fundamental differences

FILES

$GIT_DIR/svn/**/.rev_map.*

Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit names. In a repository where the noMetadata option is not set, this can be rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines that are at the end of every commit (see the svn.noMetadata section above for details).

git svn fetch and git svn rebase automatically update the rev_map if it is missing or not up to date. git svn reset automatically rewinds it.

Keywords searched by users: what is svn and git

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See more here: kientrucannam.vn

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