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Mvc Front End Development | Components[Edit]

.NET 6 - ASP.NET core MVC - (Add Bootstrap Theme - a.k.a.

History[edit]

One of the seminal insights in the early development of graphical user interfaces, MVC became one of the first approaches to describe and implement software constructs in terms of their responsibilities.[5]

Trygve Reenskaug created MVC while working on Smalltalk-79 as a visiting scientist at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in the late 1970s.[6][7][8]: 330 He wanted a pattern that could be used to structure any program where users interact with a large, convoluted data set. His design initially had four parts: Model, view, thing, and editor. After discussing it with the other Smalltalk developers, he and the rest of the group settled on model, view, and controller instead.[6]

In their final design, a model represents some part of the program purely and intuitively. A view is a visual representation of a model, retrieving data from the model to display to the user and passing requests back and forth between the user and the model. A controller is an organizational part of the user interface that lays out and coordinates multiple Views on the screen, and which receives user input and sends the appropriate messages to its underlying Views. This design also includes an Editor as a specialized kind of controller used to modify a particular view, and which is created through that view.[6]

Smalltalk-80 supports a version of MVC that evolved from this one.[6] It provides abstract

view

and

controller

classes as well as various concrete subclasses of each that represent different generic widgets. In this scheme, a

View

represents some way of displaying information to the user, and a

controller

represents some way for the user to interact with a

view

. A

view

is also coupled to a model object, but the structure of that object is left up to the application programmer. The Smalltalk-80 environment also includes an “MVC Inspector”, a development tool for viewing the structure of a given model, view, and controller side-by-side.[9]

In 1988, an article in The Journal of Object Technology (JOT) by two ex-PARC employees presented MVC as a general “programming paradigm and methodology” for Smalltalk-80 developers. However, their scheme differed from both Reenskaug et al.’s and that presented by the Smalltalk-80 reference books. They defined a view as covering any graphical concern, with a controller being a more abstract, generally invisible object that receives user input and interacts with one or many views and only one model.[10]

The MVC pattern subsequently evolved,[11] giving rise to variants such as hierarchical model–view–controller (HMVC), model–view–adapter (MVA), model–view–presenter (MVP), model–view–viewmodel (MVVM), and others that adapted MVC to different contexts.

The use of the MVC pattern in web applications grew after the introduction of NeXT’s WebObjects in 1996, which was originally written in Objective-C (that borrowed heavily from Smalltalk) and helped enforce MVC principles. Later, the MVC pattern became popular with Java developers when WebObjects was ported to Java. Later frameworks for Java, such as Spring (released in October 2002), continued the strong bond between Java and MVC.

In 2003, Martin Fowler published Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture, which presented MVC as a pattern where an “input controller” receives a request, sends the appropriate messages to a model object, takes a response from the model object, and passes the response to the appropriate view for display.[8]: 56 This is close to the approach taken by the Ruby on Rails web application framework (August 2004), which has the client send requests to the server via an in-browser view, these requests are handled by a controller on the server, and the controller communicates with the appropriate model objects.[12] The Django framework (July 2005, for Python) put forward a similar “model template view” (MTV) take on the pattern, in which a view retrieves data from models and passes it to templates for display.[13] Both Rails and Django debuted with a strong emphasis on rapid deployment, which increased MVC’s popularity outside the traditional enterprise environment in which it has long been popular.

Conclusion

The most attractive concept of the MVC pattern is separation of concerns.

Modern web applications are very complex, and making a change can sometimes be a big headache.

Managing the frontend and backend in smaller, separate components allows for the application to be scalable, maintainable, and easy to expand.

**If you want to take a look at the Car Clicker app, the code is available on GitHub or checkout the live version here.**

🌟Thank you for reading this far!🌟

Spring BootSpring MVC: Everything You Need to Know

Java frameworks are the skeleton around which all Java code is written. In the not-so-distant past, there were hundreds of Java frameworks. Over time, that number has pared down to dozens of Java frameworks.Of these, two Java frameworks stand far above the rest: Spring Boot and Spring MVC.

Spoiler alert: This isn’t an either/or decision.

Read on to learn about the differences between Spring Boot and Spring MVC, the use cases for each Java framework, and why many Java developers use Spring Boot in comination with other frameworks depending on application. We’ll also break down how less popular Java frameworks such as Vaadin, Grails, and Apache Struts.

.NET 6 - ASP.NET core MVC - (Add Bootstrap Theme - a.k.a. \
.NET 6 – ASP.NET core MVC – (Add Bootstrap Theme – a.k.a. \”A pretty Frontend\”)

React

React, created by Facebook and published in 2013, acquired a lot of traction and quickly became the most popular JavaScript framework. React drives Facebook and Instagram user interfaces, making it ideal for high-performance enterprise applications.

React promotes encapsulated components that handle their state and deliver a one-way reactive data flow. React Native may power mobile apps, while React is used on the server.

Ionic is a comprehensive open-source SDK for hybrid mobile app development. The first version, launched in 2013, was based on AngularJS and Apache Cordova. It enables programmers to create once and run anywhere.

Ionic allows web developers to use react js, angular, or vuejs to create mobile apps.

Learning Goals

  • Be able to explain each of the layers of MVC & why we use it
  • Understand the benefits of separating concerns
  • Be able to identify frameworks that use the MVC pattern
  • Be able to identify frameworks that use a different design pattern
  • Understand how we can use the MVC pattern with React/Redux
MVC Explained in 4 Minutes
MVC Explained in 4 Minutes

Why are they needed?

Building web pages utilizing a DOM manipulation toolkit like jQuery and utility libraries (underscore, modernizr) can be a lot easier. However, these frameworks lose their utility when utilized to create online applications.

Web applications differ from regular web pages because they require real-time communication with a backend server and greater user engagement. If you handled this behavior without an MVC framework, you’d write messy, unstructured, unmaintainable, and untestable code.

MVC Frameworks

JavaScript has grown in popularity, and it’s taken over the backend in recent years. More and more full-blown JavaScript applications have opted for the MVC architecture pattern in one way or another.

Frameworks come and go, but what has been constant are the concepts borrowed from the MVC architecture pattern.

Some of the early frameworks that applied these concepts were KnockoutJS, Django, and Ruby on Rails.

ASP.NET MVC Project - Full ASP.NET MVC Course - Build a Blog With ASP.NET MVC and Entity Framework
ASP.NET MVC Project – Full ASP.NET MVC Course – Build a Blog With ASP.NET MVC and Entity Framework

Conclusion

The preceding discussion demonstrates that no “one-size-fits-all” paradigm is appropriate for all cases. Each framework has benefits that make it suited for various situations. To gain a sense of each framework, you should try it out for a short time.

Finally, construct several proof-of-concept prototypes in each framework and compare the results. If you are someone looking for an effective solution to take care of your web-building activities and would like to hire the expertise of a professional JS developer, reach out to us anytime.

Abhinav Sathyamurthy is a professional blogger with over six years of experience covering technical topics such as blockchain, ERP, AI, and other matters.

How does the MVC Framework work?

An MVC pattern separates input, processing, and output for an application. There are three interconnected parts: the Model, the view, and the controller. Their purpose is to assist in structuring the codebase and divide an application’s concerns into three parts:

Model – Represents the application’s data. The Model corresponds to the type of data a web application handles, such as a user, video, image, or comment. Any subscribed parties within the application are notified when the Model is changed.

View – The application’s user interface is referred to as the view. Views are typically treated as thin adaptors that sit on top of the DOM in most frameworks. The view keeps track of a model and updates itself whenever it changes.

Controller – The controller handles any input, including clicks or browser events. The controller’s responsibility is to update the Model as needed (i.e., if a user changes their name).

All frameworks do not follow the MVC pattern. MVVM and MVP are variations of the MVC pattern used by some frameworks. Read JavaScript Design Patterns if you’re unfamiliar with the MVC pattern or the modifications utilized by various frameworks.

Step-by-step ASP.NET MVC Tutorial for Beginners | Mosh
Step-by-step ASP.NET MVC Tutorial for Beginners | Mosh

When to Use Spring MVC and Spring Boot Together

Depending on your application type and use case, Spring MVC and Spring Boot both have advantages and disadvantages. The good news for Java developers is that it’s not an either/or decision. In many cases, it makes sense for developers to use both frameworks on different parts of the application.

Whether your Java development shop uses Spring Boot, Spring MVC, Grails, Apache Struts, Vaadin, another framework, or a combination thereof, restarts and redeploys can still provide a major hurdle to your Java development workflow. With JRebel, Java developers can view code changes instantly using any combination of frameworks and in all popular Java IDEs.

Code faster in any combination of Java frameworks and IDEs with JRebel. Try for yourself during your 14-day free trial.

Model–view–controller

Model–view–controller (MVC) is a software design pattern[1] commonly used for developing user interfaces that divides the related program logic into three interconnected elements. These elements are the internal representations of information (the model), the interface (the view) that presents information to and accepts it from the user, and the controller software linking the two.[2][3]

Traditionally used for desktop graphical user interfaces (GUIs), this pattern became popular for designing web applications.[4] Popular programming languages have MVC frameworks that facilitate the implementation of the pattern.

Why Should You Use MVC?

Three words: separation of concerns, or SoC for short.

The MVC pattern helps you break up the frontend and backend code into separate components. This way, it’s much easier to manage and make changes to either side without them interfering with each other.

But this is easier said than done, especially when several developers need to update, modify, or debug a full-blown application simultaneously.

My .NET Developer Roadmap for 2023
My .NET Developer Roadmap for 2023

How to Use MVC

To better illustrate the MVC pattern, I’ve included a web application that shows how these concepts all work.

My Car Clicker application is a variation of a well-known Cat Clicker app.

Here are some of the major differences in my app:

  1. No cats, only muscle cars images (sorry cat lovers!)
  2. Multiple car models are listed
  3. There are multiple click counters
  4. It only displays the selected car

Now let’s dive into these three components that make up the MVC architecture pattern.

Model (data)

The model’s job is to simply manage the data. Whether the data is from a database, API, or a JSON object, the model is responsible for managing it.

In the Car Clicker application, the model object contains an array of car objects with all the information (data) needed for the app.

It also manages the current car being displayed with a variable that’s initially set to

null

.


const model = { currentCar: null, cars: [ { clickCount: 0, name: 'Coupe Maserati', imgSrc: 'img/black-convertible-coupe.jpg', }, { clickCount: 0, name: 'Camaro SS 1LE', imgSrc: 'img/chevrolet-camaro.jpg', }, { clickCount: 0, name: 'Dodger Charger 1970', imgSrc: 'img/dodge-charger.jpg', }, { clickCount: 0, name: 'Ford Mustang 1966', imgSrc: 'img/ford-mustang.jpg', }, { clickCount: 0, name: '190 SL Roadster 1962', imgSrc: 'img/mercedes-benz.jpg', }, ], };

Views (UI)

The view’s job is to decide what the user will see on their screen, and how.

The Car Clicker app has two views:

carListView

and

CarView

.

Both views have two critical functions that define what each view wants to initialize and render.

These functions are where the app decides what the user will see and how.

carListView


const carListView = { init() { // store the DOM element for easy access later this.carListElem = document.getElementById('car-list'); // render this view (update the DOM elements with the right values) this.render(); }, render() { let car; let elem; let i; // get the cars to be render from the controller const cars = controller.getCars(); // to make sure the list is empty before rendering this.carListElem.innerHTML = ''; // loop over the cars array for(let i = 0; i < cars.length; i++) { // this is the car we've currently looping over car = cars[i]; // make a new car list item and set its text elem = document.createElement('li'); elem.className = 'list-group-item d-flex justify-content-between lh-condensed'; elem.style.cursor = 'pointer'; elem.textContent = car.name; elem.addEventListener( 'click', (function(carCopy) { return function() { controller.setCurrentCar(carCopy); carView.render(); }; })(car) ); // finally, add the element to the list this.carListElem.appendChild(elem); } }, };

CarView


const carView = { init() { // store pointers to the DOM elements for easy access later this.carElem = document.getElementById('car'); this.carNameElem = document.getElementById('car-name'); this.carImageElem = document.getElementById('car-img'); this.countElem = document.getElementById('car-count'); this.elCount = document.getElementById('elCount'); // on click, increment the current car's counter this.carImageElem.addEventListener('click', this.handleClick); // render this view (update the DOM elements with the right values) this.render(); }, handleClick() { return controller.incrementCounter(); }, render() { // update the DOM elements with values from the current car const currentCar = controller.getCurrentCar(); this.countElem.textContent = currentCar.clickCount; this.carNameElem.textContent = currentCar.name; this.carImageElem.src = currentCar.imgSrc; this.carImageElem.style.cursor = 'pointer'; }, };

Controller (Brain)

The controller’s responsibility is to pull, modify, and provide data to the user. Essentially, the controller is the link between the view and model.

Through getter and setter functions, the controller pulls data from the model and initializes the views.

If there are any updates from the views, it modifies the data with a setter function.


const controller = { init() { // set the current car to the first one in the list model.currentCar = model.cars[0]; // tell the views to initialize carListView.init(); carView.init(); }, getCurrentCar() { return model.currentCar; }, getCars() { return model.cars; }, // set the currently selected car to the object that's passed in setCurrentCar(car) { model.currentCar = car; }, // increment the counter for the currently-selected car incrementCounter() { model.currentCar.clickCount++; carView.render(); }, }; // Let's goooo! controller.init();

Vậy đâu là lý do làm cho MVC không còn phù hợp?

MVC vẫn là cách tốt nhất trên phía server. Các framework như Rails và Django là ví dụ.

Các vấn đề phát sinh từ thực tế là các nguyên tắc và cách phân chia mà MVC đã giới thiệu trên server không giống như trên client.

Controller-View Coupling

Bên dưới là hình minh họa cách View và Controller tương tác trên server. Chỉ có duy nhất 2 điểm tiếp xúc giữa chúng, cả hai vượt qua ranh giới giữa client và server.

Khi chuyển MVC tới client, đây là một vấn đề. Các controller giống với cái chúng ta gọi là “code-behind”. Controller phụ thuộc nhiều và View. Trong hầu hết các framework đã được triển khai, nó thậm chí được tạo bởi View (Ví dụ ng-controller trong Angular).

Ngoài ra, khi bạn nghĩ về Single Responsibility Principle, điều này rõ ràng đã vi phạm các nguyên tắc. Controller ở client phải bao gồm cả even handing và business logic, ở một mức độ nhất định.

Fat Models

Hãy xem xét một chút về loại dữ liệu bạn lưu trữ trong một Model ở phía client.

Một mặt, bạn có dữ liệu như users và products, cái biểu diễn trạng thái ứng dụng (Application State). Mặt khác, bạn cần lưu trữ trạng thái giao diện người dùng (UI State) – những thứ giống như showTab hoặc selectedValue.

Tương tự Controller, Model đã vi phạm Single Responsibility Principle, bởi vì bạn không tách việc quản lý UI State và Application State.

Frontend Web Development: In-Depth Project Tutorial (HTML, CSS, JavaScript, TypeScript, React)
Frontend Web Development: In-Depth Project Tutorial (HTML, CSS, JavaScript, TypeScript, React)

Use in web applications[edit]

Although originally developed for desktop computing, MVC has been widely adopted as a design for World Wide Web applications in major programming languages. Several web frameworks have been created that enforce the pattern. These software frameworks vary in their interpretations, mainly in the way that the MVC responsibilities are divided between the client and server.[42] Early MVC frameworks took a thin client approach that placed almost the entire model, view and controller logic on the server. In this approach, the client sends hyperlink requests or form submissions to the controller and then receives a complete and updated web page (or other document) from the view; the model exists entirely on the server.[42] Later frameworks have allowed the MVC components to execute partly on the client, using Ajax to synchronize data.

What is MVC?

MVC stands for model-view-controller. Here’s what each of those components mean:

  • Model: The backend that contains all the data logic
  • View: The frontend or graphical user interface (GUI)
  • Controller: The brains of the application that controls how data is displayed

The concept of MVCs was first introduced by Trygve Reenskaug, who proposed it as a way to develop desktop application GUIs.

Today the MVC pattern is used for modern web applications because it allows the application to be scalable, maintainable, and easy to expand.

How To Add Complete Website Template In ASP.Net MVC | How To Add Education Website template In MVC
How To Add Complete Website Template In ASP.Net MVC | How To Add Education Website template In MVC

What is MVC?

MVC stands for model-view-controller. Here’s what each of those components mean:

  • Model: The backend that contains all the data logic
  • View: The frontend or graphical user interface (GUI)
  • Controller: The brains of the application that controls how data is displayed

The concept of MVCs was first introduced by Trygve Reenskaug, who proposed it as a way to develop desktop application GUIs.

Today the MVC pattern is used for modern web applications because it allows the application to be scalable, maintainable, and easy to expand.

MVC Architecture

MVC (Model View Controller) is a design pattern that you’ll find pops up all over the place in software development. In this lesson, we’ll learn what it is, why it’s important, what frameworks you’re already familiar with use it, and what some other options are for project architecture.

What is it?

MVC is an architectural pattern that separates applications into three main categories; the model, the view, and the controller. In this pattern, each component has its own specific responsibility. While implemented slightly differently in various frameworks, the general pattern is one of the most frequently used industry standards for creating scalable and extensible software.

The Model is focused solely on the data, and data related logic of the application. This could be business data for the application, or data that is being transacted between the View and Controller.

The View is concerned only with the UI of the application, and should not know what the business logic of the application is. The only logic the View should be concerned with is how to display data, based on what kind of data it was handed.

The Controller acts as the go-between for the Model and the View. It handles any user interaction coming from the View, and determines any changes that may need to be made to the Model. It can also manipulate data from the Model to give to the View, for rendering a final output.

That might seem like a lot of word salad right now, but once you start looking for this pattern, you will find it all over the place.

Take a look at the docs on MDN if you’d like to see it explained in another way.

Ok, by why would I ever use it?

You’ve already been using it! Let’s consider a super simple example:


import React from 'react'; function App() { const [count, setCount] = useState(0); handleCounter = (event) => { const increment = event.target.name === '+' ? 1 : -1; setCount(count + increment) } return (

{count}


) } export default App;

Sure this is about as basic as it gets, but even this simple counter has all three of our architectural components. Can you identify each one?

Turn and talk

  • What part of the application above is the Model?
  • How about the Controller and the View?
  • How would your answer change if this was just a stateless component accepting props?

Where will I see this?

This pattern is all over the place in software development. Consider a simple webpage. What does the HTML represent? How about the CSS? What about the browser itself?

MVC Frameworks

Several frameworks that you’re already familiar with use the MVC pattern, some of the big names are:

Why should I bother with a framework?

Frameworks ‘force’ you to reap the benefits of the MVC design pattern. Having some common, accepted standards for how to build out a project helps teams move faster, and not have to make so many decisions along the way.

Additionally, frameworks are generally easier to test, and the tests that you write will start to follow a natural pattern. Separation of concerns make this possible.

Are there other options if I don’t like MVC?

There are, although they’re less common in web application development. A few MVP (Model View Presenter) frameworks that you may come across are:

Wrapping it up

In small groups draw out the MVC of your most recent application. Work on this for 10 minutes, then we’ll reconvene.

The MVC architecture pattern turns complex application development into a much more manageable process. It allows several developers to simultaneously work on the application.

When I first learned about MVC patterns, I was intimidated by all the jargon. And even more so when I started applying these concepts to an actual application.

By taking a step back to focus on what MVC is and what it can accomplish, it’s much easier to understand and apply the pattern to any web application.

Full Course - Learn ASP.NET Core MVC in .NET 8 | CRUD Operations | EntityFramework | MVC Tutorial
Full Course – Learn ASP.NET Core MVC in .NET 8 | CRUD Operations | EntityFramework | MVC Tutorial

Which one should you pick?

Before choosing a framework for your web application, you should do your homework. You can use the framework you choose to develop complex or unusual features and maintain the app for years to come.

Here are some summaries to aid your decision-making process on which ones to attempt.

Backbone.js should be used if:

  1. Your web application has many moving parts and requires a lot of flexibility.
  2. You must be able to easily update or remove components of your web application (i.e., templating engine).
  3. You’d want to start with a simple solution to understand MVC frameworks better.

Use Angular.js if you are:

  1. To ensure durability and stability, choose a large, known firm to support your MVC framework. 2. Using a domain-specific language to decrease the complexity of a web application could be beneficial.
  2. To thoroughly test a functional web application. To test against the MVC framework, you will need a testing framework built from the ground up.

EmberJS should be used if:

  1. You’ve worked with Ruby before and enjoyed its convention-over-configuration approach.
  2. You’ll need a framework to enable you to design solutions and prototypes quickly.
  3. A framework is necessary for your web application to interface with a JSON API with minimal effort.

Use KnockoutJS if:

  1. Knockout’s MVVM pattern is much better suited to your application structure.
  2. Frameworks and applications must support legacy browsers such as IE6.
  3. Your application has a complex dynamic UI, so the framework should create these as cleanly as possible.

All the seven JavaScript frameworks described above are quite popular and most frequently used by web developers worldwide. You’ll have to consider several things to choose the best JavaScript framework.

For example, if you want a framework with strong commercial backing, React or Angular are excellent choices; yet, if you want a framework with a simple learning curve and a large community, Vue.js may be the right pick.

Why Should You Use MVC?

Three words: separation of concerns, or SoC for short.

The MVC pattern helps you break up the frontend and backend code into separate components. This way, it’s much easier to manage and make changes to either side without them interfering with each other.

But this is easier said than done, especially when several developers need to update, modify, or debug a full-blown application simultaneously.

Frontend developer | front end developer mock interview | Interviewing my Subscriber
Frontend developer | front end developer mock interview | Interviewing my Subscriber

Conclusion

The most attractive concept of the MVC pattern is separation of concerns.

Modern web applications are very complex, and making a change can sometimes be a big headache.

Managing the frontend and backend in smaller, separate components allows for the application to be scalable, maintainable, and easy to expand.

**If you want to take a look at the Car Clicker app, the code is available on GitHub or checkout the live version here.**

🌟Thank you for reading this far!🌟

Bạn có bao giờ tự hỏi mình rằng: Sau này mình sẽ làm gì? Làm web? Làm Front-End hay Back-End ? Và đã chọn rồi thì con đường nào để đạt được mục tiêu đó dễ dàng nhanh chóng và hiệu quả nhất? Nếu bạn có câu hỏi như vậy, thì bạn có thể tham khảo bài viết này của tôi.

Vậy tại sao cần phân biệt giữa Front hay Back, bởi vì lựa chọn khác nhau thì sẽ tới việc những thứ CẦN HỌC nó sẽ khác nhau, do đó chúng ta sẽ quyết định ngoài những thứ nhà trường dạy thì chúng ta sẽ học thêm cái gì, để có thể đi làm được. Để trả lời cho câu hỏi, ta chọn gì thì trước tiên ta cần hiểu về những options này đã. Bây giờ chúng ta cần đi tìm hiểu những khái niệm.

Front End Developer là ai?

Front End Developer là người tập trung phát triển phía Client Side, nói một cách đơn giản dễ hiểu là tập trung vào mảng phát triển xây dựng giao diện và trải nghiệm cho người dùng. Để dễ hình dung thì ta vào trang facebook thần thánh, nếu ta là Front End Developer cho trang này thì ta là người xác định: logo đặt ở đâu, màu chủ đạo là màu gì, font chữ to hay nhỏ, ảnh này để kích cỡ thế nào, trái tim bay lên ra sao, nút Like đặt ở đâu….Tức là, người phụ trách phát triển HIỂN THỊ và TRẢI NGHIỆM người dùng cho ứng dụng web. Bạn chính là người quyết định CÁI NHÌN ĐẦU TIÊN của người dùng về trang web. Web đẹp hay xấu, tinh tế hay thô lỗ là do bạn. Vì thế bạn cần có khả năng look & feel và trình thiết kế tuyệt đỉnh.

Kỹ năng Front End

Các ngôn ngữ để phát triển Front End bao gồm 3 ngôn ngữ chủ đạo đó là: HTML, CSS và Javascript. Tuy nhiên, để code nhanh gọn lẹ thì ta có thể sử dụng thêm các framework hay thư viện khác như:

Tuy nhiên, đó chỉ là vài cái ngôn ngữ ví dụ. Nhưng thực tế mà nói, để THIẾT KẾ được một website đẹp thì DEV cần nhiều hơn thế. DEV cần biết sử dụng font chữ cho chuẩn (typography), đưa ra bố cục hợp lý, tạo ra các trải nghiệm tinh tế và có lý thuyết cơ bản về PHỐI MẦU. Nói chung, để tạo ra 1 website đẹp không hề đơn giản, và cần nhiều kinh nghiệm cũng như trải nghiệm. Anyway, thì bạn nên bắt đầu từ HTML, CSS, Javascript, sau đó học thêm những cái liệt kê như Jquery, Bootstrap và mở rộng tầm nhìn với những từ khoá typography hay color rule.

Front End Developer là một nghề rất kiếm ra tiền, nhưng với điều kiện bạn phải làm tốt. Tốt tới đâu thì tiền về tới đó. Nếu bạn thực sự chỉ đam mê và chỉ thích thú với việc tạo ra các website đẹp, thì bạn hãy chăm chút cho nghề nghiệp của mình nhé và có thể học thêm cả photoshop nữa.

Back End Developer là ai

Nếu Front End Developer có quyền lực kiến tạo nên vẻ đẹp của các trang web, thì Back End developer là người xử lý mọi logic nghiệp vụ phức tạp ở ẩn ở phía sau, giúp cho hệ thống hoạt động trơn tru. Dữ liệu của người dùng, thuật toán phân tích … đều nằm ở back-end. Lấy ví dụ: trên trang face, khi bạn post 1 status, để status ấy được lưu trữ thì cần backend, để status ấy hiển thị cho bạn bè của bạn xem thì cũng cần backend, để status ấy lưu những react (love, phẫn nộ, woo…haha) cũng cần backend …

Back End Developer là người quyết định cách thức website được vận hành. Người vô cùng quan trọng.

Kỹ năng Back End

Để trở thành Back end developer thì bạn cần biết ngôn ngữ phía Server cũng như biết thao tác với cơ sở dữ liệu:

Kiến thức phần back-end rất nhiều và phức tạp, do đó một back-end developer chỉ nên tập trung vào 2-3 ngôn ngữ chính, đừng ráng ôm hết kẻo “tấu hỏa nhập ma”. Code phần back-end thường rất nhiều và “khủng”, do đó cần có cấu trúc tốt, dễ cải tiến và mở rộng (bằng cách áp dụng SOLID). Back-end developer có thể trau dồi kiến thức để leo lên vị trí System Analyst hoặc Software Architecture.

Full Stack Developer là ai

Full Stack là làm đủ cả Front End lẫn Back End Lập trình viên vừa có tư duy logic lại có óc thẩm mĩ tinh tế. Vừa code server giỏi lại biết linh hoạt biến hoá với css.

Các lập trình viên full stack làm việc giống như các lập trình viên back-end ở phía máy chủ của lập trình web, nhưng họ có thể cũng thành thạo các ngôn ngữ front-end để điều khiển nội dung trông như thế nào ở phía giao diện của trang web. Họ là những người đa năng.

Kỹ năng Full Stack

Để trở thành 1 lập trình viên full stack thì bạn cần có những skill sau:

Bất kể là sử dụng công cụ xác định nào, tùy thuộc vào dự án và khách hàng, các lập trình viên full stack nên có kiến thức ở mọi cấp độ về cách web hoạt động: cài đặt và cấu hình các máy chủ Linux, viết các API server-side, nhảy vào phần JavaScript client-side của một ứng dụng, và cũng cần có “con mắt thẩm mỹ” với CSS.

Sử dụng những công cụ này, các lập trình viên full stack cần có khả năng ngay lập tức xác định trách nhiệm của client-side hay server-side, và trình bày rõ ràng về mặt ưu nhược điểm của các giải pháp khác nhau.

Nguồn: Devmaster Academy Siêu tầm!

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Thiết kế và lập trình website với công nghệ HTML5, CSS3, Javascript, Bootstrapt 4, Jquery
Lập trình frontend với reacjs (Full)

Web development entailed submitting static HTML, CSS, and JavaScript files to an HTTP server.

As software as a service (SaaS) becomes more popular, programs previously only available on the desktop are moved to the browser. JavaScript front-end codebases are becoming larger and more complex to manage as more logic is run in the browser.

As a result, new MVC frameworks that provide structure and guidance when creating front-end codebases for web applications have evolved.

MVC frameworks have become popular among developers because they offer better productivity and maintainable code.

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Google Frontend Interview With A Frontend Expert
Google Frontend Interview With A Frontend Expert

Post Scriptum

Since you have been building some applications with Rails, your understanding of MVC might be a but distorted. The reason I say this is because, since RoR was initially made as a prototyping framework (notice all the scaffolding and other features for generating throw-away code), and because of its origin, Rails is actually implementing a very anemic version of MVP.

I call it “anemic”, because they nerfed both View (it should be a passive object in MVP, not a simple template) and Model Layer (yes, it is supposed to be a complicated layer, not a collection of ORM instances).

I would recommend for you to read two publications to get a much better grasp on the subject:

The second one is as close as you can get to initial definition of pattern. That, together with “GUI Architectures” article, should provide you a solid footing on the subject. And the PoEAA book (hard read, btw) would give you context in which to expand it.

The MVC architecture pattern turns complex application development into a much more manageable process. It allows several developers to simultaneously work on the application.

When I first learned about MVC patterns, I was intimidated by all the jargon. And even more so when I started applying these concepts to an actual application.

By taking a step back to focus on what MVC is and what it can accomplish, it’s much easier to understand and apply the pattern to any web application.

An overview of the most widely used frameworks

This article attempts to compare popular JavaScript frameworks for front-end development in 2021. Becoming an expert at one or more of these JS frameworks will drastically enhance your productivity and help you master programming languages.

The number of functionality supplied by each framework is similar, but their opinions and implementations differ on the best strategy to follow while developing a web application. Some frameworks are fairly flexible in terms of using them, while others demand that you stick to their predefined norms.

By comparing the philosophies of various frameworks, you may select one suitable for your application’s requirements. Each framework has much real-world experience and comes with documentation and community assistance.

Let’s get started!

Backbone.js provides a plugin and add-on library that can provide whatever functionality your application demands.

Backbone is more of a utility library than a full-fledged MVC framework when used without plugins.

Because of Backbone’s modularity, you may fine-tune it to utilize a different templating engine if your application requires it. As a result, Backbone is a good choice for designing a web application with many moving parts.

Pros: unopinionated, great track record of being used in large web apps (WordPress, Rdio, Hulu), source code extremely simple to understand, the gentle learning curve

Cons: External dependencies are required (underscore), memory management can be difficult for novices, there is no built-in two-way binding, it is unopinionated, and it requires plugins to become as feature-complete as other MVC frameworks.

Google created and developed Angular.js, which is rapidly gaining popularity. Using custom HTML tags and components to express the objectives of your application is Angular’s standout feature.

It comes with an HTML generator that lets users construct their domain-specific language; this can be a very useful tool. The approach differs from other frameworks, which attempt to address HTML’s problems by abstracting HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and giving alternate methods for manipulating the DOM.

Pros: Google-backed dependency injection, built-in testing framework, built-in form validation, directives, and extremely easy debugging

Cons: High learning curve, data-binding can be difficult for pages with much data, and transitions between showing and hiding views are difficult to construct.

EmberJS is an opinionated, modular framework that may be straightforward and intuitive to work with if you follow the Ember style of building applications.

Compared to other frameworks, its convention over configuration approach implies it provides an appropriate starting point for the design.When working with EmberJS, it will seem very familiar if you’ve worked with Ruby on Rails.

Pros: Ember Data makes syncing with JSON APIs much easier, requires little configuration, and follows a convention over the configuration approach.

Cons: Lacks comprehensive testing tools, makes it difficult to incorporate third-party libraries due to its opinionated approach, has a steep learning curve at first, and has an unreliable API.

KnockoutJS simplifies dynamic UIs with an MVVM (Model – View – ViewModel) pattern. It provides declarative bindings that build even the most complex UIs while maintaining the underlying data model.

Bindings make custom behaviors like sorting a table simple to create in only minimum lines of code.

As for compatibility, KnockoutJS works with all modern browsers and legacy browsers (Internet Explorer 6).

Pros: Data binding is intuitive and quick to learn, custom events allow for easy implementation of custom behavior, and inter-application connections are managed with a dependency graph, ensuring high performance even for data-heavy applications.

Cons: HTML templates/views can get messy if lots of bindings are used, end-to-end functionality (URL routing, data-access) is not available out of the box, and no third-party dependencies

Evan You created Vue.js, a progressive JavaScript framework launched in 2014. Vue is also one of the most rapidly expanding JavaScript frameworks in popularity and acceptance.

Vue.js supports two-way data binding, server-side rendering, and tools with vue-cli. It has extensive online documentation and many free Vue.js tutorials from the community. Vue is also suitable for large-scale projects.

ASP.NET Core Tutorial for Beginners
ASP.NET Core Tutorial for Beginners

MVC Frameworks

JavaScript has grown in popularity, and it’s taken over the backend in recent years. More and more full-blown JavaScript applications have opted for the MVC architecture pattern in one way or another.

Frameworks come and go, but what has been constant are the concepts borrowed from the MVC architecture pattern.

Some of the early frameworks that applied these concepts were KnockoutJS, Django, and Ruby on Rails.

Vocab


  • Model

    The Model is focused solely on the data, and data related logic of the application. The data can both relate to the business data of the application, or the data that is being transacted between the View and Controller.

  • View

    The View is concerned only with the UI of the application, and should not know what the business logic of the application is. The only logic it should be concerned with is how to display data.

  • Controller

    The Controller acts as the go-between for the Model and the View. It handles user interaction coming from the View, and determines any changes that may need to be made to the Model. Vice versa, it can also manipulate data from the Model to give to the View, for rendering a final output.

  • Separation of Concerns

    This refers to the idea that each module or layer in an application is only responsible for one thing and should not contain code that deals with other parts of the application. Separating concerns reduces code complexity by breaking a large application down into many smaller units of encapsulated functionality.
ASP.NET, C# (Csharp) Job Market Analysis for the year 2024
ASP.NET, C# (Csharp) Job Market Analysis for the year 2024

The Benefits of Using the MVC Framework

Rapid and Parallel Development:

MVC allows for rapid and parallel development. If an MVC model is used to design a web application, one programmer may work on the view while the other works on the controller to generate the website’s business logic.

As a result, an application built using the MVC model can be completed three times faster than an application built using alternative development patterns.

Capacity to Provide Multiple Perspectives:

You can construct numerous views for a model in the MVC Pattern. There is a growing desire for additional ways to access your application today, and MVC development is a wonderful way to meet that demand.

Furthermore, code duplication is minimal because the data and business logic are separated from the display.

Asynchronous Technique Support:

The MVC design can also be used with the JavaScript Framework. Now MVC apps can operate with PDF files, site-specific browsers, and desktop widgets.

MVC also offers an asynchronous method, which aids developers in creating a fast-loading application.

The Change Does Not Affect The Entire Model:

The user interface changes more frequently in any online application than in the.net development company’s business principles. You make frequent modifications to your online application, such as changing colors, fonts, and screen layouts and introducing new smartphone and tablet device compatibility, which is understandable.

Adding a new view is also simple using the MVC paradigm because the Model component is independent of the Views portion. As a result, any modifications to the Model will not impact the overall design.

MVC Model Returns Data Without Formatting:

The MVC pattern returns data with no formatting applied. As a result, the same components can be utilized with any interface and called for use. HTML, for example, may format any data, but it can also be produced with Macromedia Flash or Dreamweaver.

Other JS Frameworks worth mentioning

Agility.js

It is a client-side MVC library for Javascript that allows you to write maintainable code without sacrificing development speed.

CanJS

It is a suite of client-side JavaScript architectural frameworks that aim to strike a balance between innovation and stability. It is aimed at experienced developers working on sophisticated projects with a bright future. CanJS is a Javascript MVC Frameworks category tech stack tool. CanJS is an open-source project with 1.9K stars on GitHub and 420 forks.

Spine.JS

The spine is a lightweight and basic framework that doesn’t have a lot of complicated widgets to configure and customize.It attempts to offer the most user-friendly documentation of any JavaScript framework.

What is programming MVC? [Detailed Explanation]
What is programming MVC? [Detailed Explanation]

Motivation[edit]

As Alan Kay wrote in 2003, the original motivation behind the MVC was to allow creation of a graphical interface for any object.[40] That was outlined in detail in Richard Pawson’s book Naked Objects.[40]

Trygve Reenskaug, originator of MVC at PARC, has written that “MVC was conceived as a general solution to the problem of users controlling a large and complex data set.”[6]

In their 1991 guide Inside Smalltalk, Carleton University computer science professors Wilf LaLonde and John Pugh described the advantages of Smalltalk-80-style MVC as:

  • independence of presentation and data, e.g. multiple views on one model simultaneously,
  • composable presentation widgets, e.g. one view used as a subview of another,
  • switchable input modes, by swapping one controller out for another during runtime, and
  • independence of input and output processing, via the separate responsibilities of controllers and views.[41]

How to Use MVC

To better illustrate the MVC pattern, I’ve included a web application that shows how these concepts all work.

My Car Clicker application is a variation of a well-known Cat Clicker app.

Here are some of the major differences in my app:

  1. No cats, only muscle cars images (sorry cat lovers!)
  2. Multiple car models are listed
  3. There are multiple click counters
  4. It only displays the selected car

Now let’s dive into these three components that make up the MVC architecture pattern.

Model (data)

The model’s job is to simply manage the data. Whether the data is from a database, API, or a JSON object, the model is responsible for managing it.

In the Car Clicker application, the model object contains an array of car objects with all the information (data) needed for the app.

It also manages the current car being displayed with a variable that’s initially set to

null

.


const model = { currentCar: null, cars: [ { clickCount: 0, name: 'Coupe Maserati', imgSrc: 'img/black-convertible-coupe.jpg', }, { clickCount: 0, name: 'Camaro SS 1LE', imgSrc: 'img/chevrolet-camaro.jpg', }, { clickCount: 0, name: 'Dodger Charger 1970', imgSrc: 'img/dodge-charger.jpg', }, { clickCount: 0, name: 'Ford Mustang 1966', imgSrc: 'img/ford-mustang.jpg', }, { clickCount: 0, name: '190 SL Roadster 1962', imgSrc: 'img/mercedes-benz.jpg', }, ], };

Views (UI)

The view’s job is to decide what the user will see on their screen, and how.

The Car Clicker app has two views:

carListView

and

CarView

.

Both views have two critical functions that define what each view wants to initialize and render.

These functions are where the app decides what the user will see and how.

carListView


const carListView = { init() { // store the DOM element for easy access later this.carListElem = document.getElementById('car-list'); // render this view (update the DOM elements with the right values) this.render(); }, render() { let car; let elem; let i; // get the cars to be render from the controller const cars = controller.getCars(); // to make sure the list is empty before rendering this.carListElem.innerHTML = ''; // loop over the cars array for(let i = 0; i < cars.length; i++) { // this is the car we've currently looping over car = cars[i]; // make a new car list item and set its text elem = document.createElement('li'); elem.className = 'list-group-item d-flex justify-content-between lh-condensed'; elem.style.cursor = 'pointer'; elem.textContent = car.name; elem.addEventListener( 'click', (function(carCopy) { return function() { controller.setCurrentCar(carCopy); carView.render(); }; })(car) ); // finally, add the element to the list this.carListElem.appendChild(elem); } }, };

CarView


const carView = { init() { // store pointers to the DOM elements for easy access later this.carElem = document.getElementById('car'); this.carNameElem = document.getElementById('car-name'); this.carImageElem = document.getElementById('car-img'); this.countElem = document.getElementById('car-count'); this.elCount = document.getElementById('elCount'); // on click, increment the current car's counter this.carImageElem.addEventListener('click', this.handleClick); // render this view (update the DOM elements with the right values) this.render(); }, handleClick() { return controller.incrementCounter(); }, render() { // update the DOM elements with values from the current car const currentCar = controller.getCurrentCar(); this.countElem.textContent = currentCar.clickCount; this.carNameElem.textContent = currentCar.name; this.carImageElem.src = currentCar.imgSrc; this.carImageElem.style.cursor = 'pointer'; }, };

Controller (Brain)

The controller’s responsibility is to pull, modify, and provide data to the user. Essentially, the controller is the link between the view and model.

Through getter and setter functions, the controller pulls data from the model and initializes the views.

If there are any updates from the views, it modifies the data with a setter function.


const controller = { init() { // set the current car to the first one in the list model.currentCar = model.cars[0]; // tell the views to initialize carListView.init(); carView.init(); }, getCurrentCar() { return model.currentCar; }, getCars() { return model.cars; }, // set the currently selected car to the object that's passed in setCurrentCar(car) { model.currentCar = car; }, // increment the counter for the currently-selected car incrementCounter() { model.currentCar.clickCount++; carView.render(); }, }; // Let's goooo! controller.init();

Introduction to .NET Microservices (.NET 8)
Introduction to .NET Microservices (.NET 8)

Examining Other Java Frameworks: Vaadin, Grails and Apache Struts

As previously mentioned, there are dozens of Java frameworks, but Spring Boot and Spring MVC are by far the most popular when it comes to web development. Here are some other Java frameworks that are popular for specific applications:

Vaadin

Vaadin is anopen source framework for building web applications in Java. It includes a large library of UI frameworks and can be useful for building applications where user experience is paramount.

Grails

Grails is designed to be a high-productivity Java Framework. It is based on the Apache Groovy language and is an open source framework for the JVM built on top of Spring Boot.

Apache Struts

Apache Struts is an open source alternative to Spring MVC. One key difference between these Java frameworks is that Apache Struts has more dependencies and is therefore more closely coupled. Apache Struts also has a history of security issues so users should pay attention for updates.

Interactions[edit]

In addition to dividing the application into these components, the model–view–controller design defines the interactions between them.[37]

  • The model is responsible for managing the data of the application. It receives user input from the controller.
  • The view renders presentation of the model in a particular format.
  • The controller responds to the user input and performs interactions on the data model objects. The controller receives the input, optionally validates it and then passes the input to the model.

As with other software patterns, MVC expresses the “core of the solution” to a problem while allowing it to be adapted for each system.[38] Particular MVC designs can vary significantly from the traditional description here.[39]

Spring Boot, React.js & AWS S3 Full Stack Development
Spring Boot, React.js & AWS S3 Full Stack Development

Vậy cái gì sẽ nắm giữ tương lai?

Tôi không nghĩ rằng chúng ta sẽ trở lại với kiến trúc MVC cổ điển trong các ứng dụng front end của mình.

Ngày càng có nhiều lập trình viên nhận thấy lợi thế của các kiến trúc một chiều (unidirectional) và component, việc này sẽ tạo ra các thư viện và các công cụ tốt hơn.

Vậy loại kiến trúc này sẽ là giải pháp tốt nhất cho 5 năm tới? Rất có thể, nhưng một lần nữa, không có gì là chắc chắn cả.

5 năm trước, không ai có thể dự đoán cách chúng ta sẽ viết ứng dụng như hiện tại. Vì thế tôi không nghĩ nó là an toàn để đặt cược tương lai ngay lúc này.

How do you use front-end development patterns like MVC, MVVM, or Flux?

Front-end development patterns are ways of organizing your code and data flow in web applications. They help you structure your project, avoid duplication, and manage complexity. In this article, you will learn how to use three popular patterns: MVC, MVVM, and Flux.

MVC stands for Model-View-Controller. It is a pattern that separates your application into three components: the model, which handles the data and logic; the view, which displays the user interface; and the controller, which mediates the interaction between the model and the view. MVC is widely used in frameworks like Ruby on Rails, Laravel, and Django.

  • Lawrence Shah

    Full Stack Engineer at Qualified.com

    – Replace “logic” with “business logic”. – Capitalize “model”, “view”, and “controller” to make them read more like named concepts. Also easier to scan. – Use a bullet point list; semi-colons can make sentences long and hard to read.

  • Shayan Hosseinali

    Frontend Developer at LiaTeam

    MVC separates your application into three part, not three component. because component has other mean for front-end developers

MVVM stands for Model-View-ViewModel. It is a variation of MVC that introduces a fourth component: the view model, which acts as a bridge between the model and the view. The view model exposes the data and methods that the view needs, and reacts to the view’s events and changes. MVVM is commonly used in frameworks like Angular, Vue, and React.

Flux is a pattern that implements a one-way data flow in your application. It consists of four components: the action, which represents a user or system event; the dispatcher, which broadcasts the action to the rest of the system; the store, which holds the state and logic of the application; and the view, which renders the user interface based on the store’s state. Flux is the basis of libraries like Redux, MobX, and NgRx.

When deciding which pattern is best for your project, there is no definitive answer. It depends on personal preference, the complexity and scale of your application, the features and benefits of the frameworks and libraries you use, and the trade-offs and challenges of each pattern. Generally speaking, MVC should be used if you want a simple way to separate your concerns and are working with server-side rendering or full-stack frameworks. Meanwhile, MVVM should be used if you need more flexibility in data binding and are working with client-side rendering or component-based frameworks. Finally, Flux should be used if you want more control over data flow and are working with large and dynamic applications or state management libraries.

  • Adam Tolley

    Full Stack Web Applications Architect. (The acronym sounds like fuh-schwah)

    – MVC and MVVM are patterns that apply to the architecture of an entire application web application – Flux is one of many patterns used for managing (usually global) state for that web application – Flux is not comparable to MVC or MVVM – Flux is comparable with Reactive Extensions, the Observer Pattern, Shared Global objects, React state hooks (useState, useEffect, useContext), State machines, Pub-Sub and “Signal” based systems, among others.

  • Che’ J. Holloway

    Agreed. AngularJS & before it KnockoutJS, is the way that the framework is set up, they are MVVM. All changes (the magic) happens in the ViewModel. (Either with one-way, or 2-way binding, the choice is yours) Other frameworks are generally MVC. As said before, it’s a way/ dev pattern that is a tried and true way to seperate concerns and let The Controller handle the business logic. It’s not really concerned about data binding. And Flux, just a dev pattern so your data only flows ONE WAY. There’s NO 2-Way data-binding if The Flux pattern is done right.

The best way to learn a front-end development pattern is to practice it with a real or simulated project. You can start by following a tutorial or a course that teaches you the basics of the pattern and how to use it with a specific framework or library. Then, you can apply your knowledge to your own project or a challenge that requires you to use the pattern. You can also read the documentation and the source code of the frameworks and libraries that implement the pattern, and compare and contrast different approaches and solutions.

To improve your skills with front-end development patterns, you need to keep learning and experimenting. You can read articles and books that explain the concepts and principles behind the patterns, and how they solve common problems in web development. You can also watch videos and podcasts that showcase different examples and use cases of the patterns, and how they work in different scenarios and contexts. You can also join online communities and forums where you can ask questions, share your experiences, and get feedback from other developers who use the patterns.

More relevant reading

  • AngularJSHow do you use dependency injection to test your AngularJS controllers?
  • Front-end DevelopmentHow do you select the right front-end framework?
  • Front-end DevelopmentHow do you master JavaScript fundamentals for front-end development?
  • Front-end DevelopmentHow do you blend front-end and back-end development?

More and more front-end developers are adopting unidirectional architectures. So what’s the future for the classic Model-View-Controller (MVC) approach?

In order to understand how we got to this point, let’s first review the evolution of front-end architecture.

Over the past four years, I’ve worked on a great deal of web projects and spent a good amount of time architecting front ends and integrating framework into them.

Before 2010, JavaScript — that programming language jQuery was written in — was used mostly for adding DOM manipulation to traditional websites. Developers didn’t seem to care much about the architecture itself. Things like the revealing module pattern were good enough to structure our codebases around.

Our current discussion of front-end vs back-end architecture only came about in late 2010. This is when developers started taking the concept of a single page application seriously. This is also when frameworks like Backbone and Knockout started to become popular.

Since many of the principles these frameworks were built around were quite new at the time, their designers had to look elsewhere for inspiration. They borrowed practices that were already well established for server-side architecture. And at that moment, all the popular server-side frameworks involved some sort of implementation of the classic MVC model (also known as MV* because of its variations).

When React.js was first introduced as a rendering library, many developers mocked it because they perceived its way of dealing with HTML in JavaScript as counter-intuitive. But they overlooked the most important contribution that React brought on the table — Component Based Architecture.

React did not invent components, but it did take this idea one step further.

This major breakthrough in architecture was overlooked even by Facebook, when they advertised React as the “V in the MVC.”

On a side note, I still have nightmares after reviewing a codebase which had both Angular 1.x and React working together.

2015 brought us a major shift in mindset — from the familiar MVC pattern to the Unidirectional Architectures and Data Flows derived from Flux and Functional Reactive Programming, supported by tools like Redux or RxJS.

So where did it all go wrong for MVC?

MVC is still probably the best way to deal with the server side. Frameworks like Rails and Django are a pleasure to work with.

The problems stem from the fact that the principles and separations that MVC introduced on the server aren’t the same as on the client.

Controller-View Coupling

Below is a diagram of how the View and the Controller are interacting on the server. There are only two touch points between them, both crossing the boundary between the client and the server.

When you move to MVC on the client, there’s a problem. Controllers resemble what we call “code-behind.” The Controller is highly dependent on the View. In most framework implementations, it’s even created by the View (as is the case with, for example, ng-controller in Angular).

Additionally, when you think of the Single Responsibility Principle, this is clearly breaking the rules. The client controller code is dealing with both event handling and business logic, at a certain level.

Fat Models

Think a bit about the kind of data you store in a Model on the client side.

On one hand, you have data like users and products, which represent your Application State. On the other hand, you need to store the UI State — things like showTab or selectedValue.

Similar to the Controller, the Model is breaking the Single Responsibility Principle, because you don’t have a separate way of managing UI State and Application State.

So where do components fit into this model?

Components are: Views + Event Handling+ UI State.

The diagram below shows how you actually split the original MVC model to obtain the components. What’s left above the line is exactly what Flux is trying to solve: managing Application State and Business Logic.

With the popularity of React and component-based architecture, we saw the rise of unidirectional architectures for managing application state.

One of the reasons these two go so well together so well is that they cover the classic MVC approach entirely. They also provide a much better separation of concerns when it comes to building front-end architectures.

But this is no longer a React story. If you look at Angular 2, you’ll see the exact same pattern being applied, even though you have different options for managing application state like ngrx/store.

There wasn’t really anything MVC could have done better on the client. It was doomed to fail from the beginning. We just needed time to see this. Through this five-year process, front-end architecture evolved into what it is today. And when you think about it, five years isn’t such a long time for best practices to emerge.

MVC was necessary in the beginning because our front end applications were getting bigger and more complex, and we didn’t know how to structure them. I think it served its purpose, while also providing a good lesson about taking a good practice from one context (the server) and applying it to another (the client).

So what does the future hold?

I don’t think that we will come back to the classic MVC architecture anytime soon for our front end apps.

As more and more developers start to see the advantages of components and unidirectional architectures, the focus will be on building better tools and libraries that go down that path.

Will this kind of architecture be the best solution five years from now? There’s a good chance of that happening, but then again, nothing is certain.

Five years ago, no one could have predicted how we would end up writing apps today. So I don’t think that it’s safe to place the bets for the future now.

That’s about it! I hope you enjoyed reading this. I welcome your feedback below.

If you liked the article, click on the green heart below and I will know my efforts are not in vain.

OK.. first the terms:

  • Frontend – are the parts, which are visible to users: HTML, CSS, client-side Javascript. It all is basically “frontend”. In a desktop application frontend would be the GUI.
  • Backend – is the invisible part. In web applications that is your java, ruby, php or any other serverside code. It can be either interpreted or compiled, because “how” it works has no impact on “what” it is.

If you read GUI Architectures and research the MVC pattern in general, you will understand that MVC is not about separation of backend and frontend. Especially when it comes to MVC-inspired patterns, that we use for web applications.

The goal of MVC and related patterns is to separate presentation from domain business logic.

Here are the basic responsibilities of MVC parts:

  • Model – business logic
  • View – presentation logic
  • Controller – changing state of model and view (based on user input)

Let’s take an example:

  • alternative client application for twitter
  • uses OAuth for authentication
  • user can input different search phrases
  • takes information via Twitter’s REST API
  • validates data
  • parses the JSON responses
  • manipulates DOM to present the information

This all can be done with client-side JavaScript. You can have MVC triad running “frontend”! At the same time, the “backend” which provides REST API is an MVC-like structure. Only this time the View is generating JSON responses, instead of HTML.

*Conclusion: You can use MVC pattern both on backend and frontend.**

Frontend vs Backend Software Development - Which should you learn?
Frontend vs Backend Software Development – Which should you learn?

Vậy đâu là lý do các component phù hợp với mô hình này?

Các component là: Views + Event Handling + UI State.

Hình bên dưới cho bạn thấy cách chia mô hình MVC gốc để có các component. Cái ở phía trên đường kẻ chính xác là cái Flux đang cố để giải quyết: quản lý Application State và Business Logic.

Với sự phổ biến của React và kiến trúc dựa trên component (component-based architecture), chúng ta thấy sự nổi lên của các kiến trúc một chiều (unidirectional architectures) để quản lý trạng thái của ứng dụng.

Một trong những lý do 2 kiến trúc này làm việc tốt với nhau là chúng đề cập tới toàn bộ hướng tiếp cận MVC cổ điển. Chúng cũng cung cấp một cách phân chia tốt hơn các thành phần khi xây dựng các kiến trúc font-end.

Nhưng đây không còn là câu chuyện của riêng React. Nếu bạn xem Angular 2, bạn sẽ thấy chính xác pattern tương tự được áp dụng, mặc dù bạn có vài tùy chọn để quản lý trạng thái của ứng dụng giống như ngrx/store.

Thực tế là không phải tất cả mọi thứ MVC có thể làm tốt hơn trên phía client. Nó đã thất bại ngay từ khi bắt đầu. Chúng ta chỉ cần chờ để thấy điều này, mặc dù quá trình này đã diễn ra 5 năm, kiến trúc front-end đã phát triển thành như hiện tại. Tuy nhiên, 5 năm không phải là thời gian dài để có các best practice.

MVC cần thiết khi bắt đầu bởi vì các ứng dụng front end trở lên lớn hơn và phức tạp hơn, và chúng ta không biết cách cấu trúc chúng. Tôi nghĩ nó đã làm tốt nhiệm vụ này, và nó cũng cung cấp một bài học hay về cách lấy một practice tốt từ một bối cảnh (server) và áp dụng tới một bối cảnh khác (client).

What Is Spring MVC?

MVC stands for model-viewer-controller. There are dozens of Spring frameworks, but Spring MVC is by far the most popular for creating web applications.

These components can be further defined as:

  • Model: Displays the application data you’re developing
  • View: Presents the data and handles user interaction
  • Controller: How the model and view communicate with one another

The model-viewer-controller (MVC) framework pattern separates different aspects of the application (e.g., input logic, business logic, and UI logic). In short, Spring MVC creates the dots needed for large, enterprise applications and then connects those dots.

The Spring MVC framework is deeply customizable, but it also requires significant manual configuration by an experienced architect to get up and running. Most Java development shops will link Spring MVC for the backend and use a different UI for the application front end.

From writing simple API applications over microservices to creating large, monolithic applications with complex business logic, Spring MVC can be used almost anywhere. That said, it’s most popular for large business applications, which also tend to have longer restart and redeploy times. With JRebel, you can skip rebuilds and redeploys and view code changes instantly while maintaining application state.

Start your 14-day free trial of JRebel today.

Spring Boot is geared towards a microservices environment. It’s a “convention over configuration” environment that’s designed for creating stand-alone, production-grade applications.

These features make Spring Boot the premier framework in the Java community and is the most commonly used framework among JRebel users. It is designed to be spun up quickly and used “out of the box” with minimal configuration. This is in contrast to Spring MVC, which requires significant configuration.

It’s also designed specifically for microservice environments. Microservices parse an application into small, independent pieces. This architecture makes it easier for developers to build and manage a large application without disrupting other mission-critical workloads.

📚 Further Reading:When to Use Microservices in Java

Spring Boot isn’t the end all be all when it comes to microservices-focused Java frameworks, however. This blog post breaks down how Spring Boot compares to Quarkus, Micronaut, Node.js, Django, and Vert.x.

Back to top

My C# & .NET Developer Roadmap
My C# & .NET Developer Roadmap

Components[edit]

Model[edit]

The central component of the pattern. It is the application’s dynamic data structure, independent of the user interface.[14] It directly manages the data, logic and rules of the application. In Smalltalk-80, the design of a model type is left entirely to the programmer.[15] With WebObjects, Rails, and Django, a model type typically represents a table in the application’s database.[16][17][18]

View[edit]

Any representation of information such as a chart, diagram or table. Multiple views of the same information are possible, such as a bar chart for management and a tabular view for accountants.

In Smalltalk-80, a view is just a visual representation of a model, and does not handle user input.[19] With WebObjects, a view represents a complete user interface element such as a menu or button, and does receive input from the user.[20] In both Smalltalk-80 and WebObjects, however, views are meant to be general-purpose and composable.[21][22]

With Rails and Django, the role of the view is played by HTML templates, so in their scheme a view specifies an in-browser user interface rather than representing a user interface widget directly.[23][24] (Django opts to call this kind of object a “template” in light of this.[25]) This approach puts relatively less emphasis on small, composable views; a typical Rails view has a one-to-one relationship with a controller action.[26]

Smalltalk-80 views communicate with both a model and a controller,[27] whereas with WebObjects, a view talks only to a controller, which then talks to a model.[28] With Rails and Django, a view/template is used by a controller/view when preparing a response to the client.[29][30]

Controller[edit]

Accepts input and converts it to commands for the model or view.[31]

A Smalltalk-80 controller handles user input events, such as button presses or mouse movement.[32] At any given time, each controller has one associated view and model, although one model object may hear from many different controllers. Only one controller, the “active” controller, receives user input at any given time; a global window manager object is responsible for setting the current active controller. If user input prompts a change in a model, the controller will signal the model to change, but the model is then responsible for telling its views to update.[33]

In WebObjects, the views handle user input, and the controller mediates between the views and the models. There may be only one controller per application, or one controller per window. Much of the application-specific logic is found in the controller.[34]

In Rails, requests arriving at the on-server application from the client are sent to a “router”, which maps the request to a specific method of a specific controller. Within that method, the controller interacts with the request data and any relevant model objects and prepares a response using a view. Conventionally, each view has an associated controller; for example, if the application had a

client

view, it would typically have an associated

Clients

controller as well. However, developers are free to make other kinds of controllers if they wish.[35]

Django calls the object playing this role a “view” instead of a controller.[30] A Django view is a function that receives a web request and returns a web response. It may use templates to create the response.[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “The Principles of Clean Architecture by Uncle Bob Martin”. YouTube.
  2. ^ Reenskaug, Trygve; Coplien, James O. (20 March 2009). “The DCI Architecture: A New Vision of Object-Oriented Programming”. Artima Developer. Archived from the original on 23 March 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2019.

    More deeply, the framework exists to separate the representation of information from user interaction.

  3. ^ Burbeck (1992): “… the user input, the modeling of the external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by three types of object.”
  4. ^ Davis, Ian. “What Are The Benefits of MVC?”. Internet Alchemy. Retrieved 2016-11-29.
  5. ^ Model–View–Controller History. C2.com (2012-05-11). Retrieved on 2013-12-09.
  6. ^ a b c d e Notes and Historical documents from Trygve Reenskaug, inventor of MVC.
  7. ^ “A note on DynaBook requirements”, Trygve Reenskaug, 22 March 1979, SysReq.pdf.
  8. ^ a b Fowler, Martin (2003). Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-321-12742-0.
  9. ^ Goldberg, Adele (1984). Smalltalk-80: The Interactive Programming Environment. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-11372-4.
  10. ^ Krasner, Glenn E.; Pope, Stephen T. (Aug–Sep 1988). “A cookbook for using the model–view controller user interface paradigm in Smalltalk-80”. The Journal of Object Technology. SIGS Publications. 1 (3): 26–49. Also published as “A Description of the Model–View–Controller User Interface Paradigm in the Smalltalk-80 System” (Report), ParcPlace Systems; Retrieved 2012-06-05.
  11. ^ The evolution of MVC and other UI architectures from Martin Fowler.
  12. ^ “Ruby on Rails Guides”. Retrieved March 19, 2022.
  13. ^ “Django FAQ: Django appears to be a MVC framework, but you call the Controller the “view”, and the View the “template”. How come you don’t use the standard names?”. Retrieved March 19, 2022.
  14. ^ Burbeck, Steve (1992) Applications Programming in Smalltalk-80:How to use Model–View–Controller (MVC)
  15. ^ LaLonde, Wilf R.; Pugh, John R. (1991). Inside Smalltalk. U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall Inc. p. 8. ISBN 0-13-467309-3.

    The model can be any object without restriction.

  16. ^ WebObjects System Overview (PDF). Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer, Inc. May 2001. p. 28.

    In WebObjects, a model establishes and maintains a correspondence between an enterprise object class and data stored in a relational database.

  17. ^ “Active Record Basics”. Rails Guides. Retrieved October 27, 2022.

    This will create a


    Product

    model, mapped to a products table at the database.

  18. ^ “Models”. Django Documentation. Retrieved October 27, 2022.

    Generally, each model maps to a single database table.

  19. ^ LaLonde, Wilf R.; Pugh, John R. (1991). Inside Smalltalk. U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall Inc. p. 8. ISBN 0-13-467309-3.

    The view is responsible for providing a visual representation of the object.

  20. ^ WebObjects System Overview (PDF). Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer, Inc. May 2001. p. 28.

    View objects represent things visible on the user interface (windows, for example, or buttons).

  21. ^ LaLonde, Wilf R.; Pugh, John R. (1991). Inside Smalltalk. U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall Inc. p. 8. ISBN 0-13-467309-3.

    [MVC] permits views to be used as parts for assembly into larger units; new kinds of views can be constructed using existing views as subviews.

  22. ^ WebObjects System Overview (PDF). Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer, Inc. May 2001. p. 28.

    View objects tend to be very reusable and so provide consistency between applications.

  23. ^ “Action View Overview”. Rails Guides. Retrieved October 27, 2022.

    Action View templates are written using embedded Ruby in tags mingled with HTML.

  24. ^ “Templates”. Django Documentation. Retrieved October 27, 2022.

    A template contains the static parts of the desired HTML output as well as some special syntax describing how dynamic content will be inserted.

  25. ^ “Django FAQ: Django appears to be a MVC framework, but you call the Controller the “view”, and the View the “template”. How come you don’t use the standard names?”. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  26. ^ “Action View Overview”. Rails Guides. Retrieved October 27, 2022.

    Typically, the views share their name with the associated controller action…

  27. ^ LaLonde, Wilf R.; Pugh, John R. (1991). Inside Smalltalk. U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall Inc. p. 9. ISBN 0-13-467309-3.

    …the view knows explicitly about the model and the controller.

  28. ^ WebObjects System Overview (PDF). Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer, Inc. May 2001. p. 28.

    Acting as a mediator between Model objects and View objects in an application is a Controller object.

  29. ^ “Action View Overview”. Rails Guides. Retrieved October 27, 2022.

    In Rails, web requests are handled by action controller and action view. Typically, action controller is concerned with communicating with the database and performing CRUD actions where necessary. Action View is then responsible for compiling the response.

  30. ^ a b “Django FAQ: Django appears to be a MVC framework, but you call the Controller the “view”, and the View the “template”. How come you don’t use the standard names?”. Retrieved October 27, 2022.

    In Django, a ‘view’ describes which data is presented, but a view normally delegates to a template, which describes how the data is presented.

  31. ^ Simple Example of MVC (Model–View–Controller) Architectural Pattern for Abstraction
  32. ^ LaLonde, Wilf R.; Pugh, John R. (1991). Inside Smalltalk. U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall Inc. p. 8. ISBN 0-13-467309-3.

    The controller is responsible for interfacing between the user and the model/view. It interprets keyboard characters along with mouse movements and clicking.

  33. ^ LaLonde, Wilf R.; Pugh, John R. (1991). Inside Smalltalk. U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall Inc. p. 11. ISBN 0-13-467309-3.
  34. ^ WebObjects System Overview (PDF). Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer, Inc. May 2001. p. 28.
  35. ^ “Action View Overview”. Rails Guides. Retrieved October 27, 2022.

    Typically, the views share their name with the associated controller action…

  36. ^ “Writing views”. Django Documentation. Retrieved October 27, 2022.
  37. ^ Buschmann, Frank (1996) Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture.
  38. ^ Gamma, Erich et al. (1994) Design Patterns
  39. ^ Moore, Dana et al. (2007) Professional Rich Internet Applications: Ajax and Beyond: “Since the origin of MVC, there have been many interpretations of the pattern. The concept has been adapted and applied in very different ways to a wide variety of systems and architectures.”
  40. ^ a b Alan Kay (23 May 2003). “is squeak really object oriented ?”. Squeak Foundation mailing list. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  41. ^ LaLonde, Wilf R.; Pugh, John R. (1991). Inside Smalltalk. Vol. 2. U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall Inc. pp. 8–9. ISBN 0-13-467309-3.
  42. ^ a b Leff, Avraham; Rayfield, James T. (September 2001). Web-Application Development Using the Model/View/Controller Design Pattern. IEEE Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference. pp. 118–127.

Over the years, software development has gone through many changes. One of the biggest changes that happened in recent years, is the use of MVC patterns for developing software or web application. The Model–view–controller shortly known as MVC is a software architectural design for implementing user interfaces on computers. The MVC pattern is a great architecture no matter whatever the language you are using for the development.

How does MVC pattern work?

MVC patterns separate the input, processing, and output of an application. This model divided into three interconnected parts called the model, the view, and the controller. All of the three above given components are built to handle some specific development aspects of any web or .net application development.

In the MVC application development, the controller receives all requests for the application and then instructs the model to prepare any information required by the view. The view uses that data prepared by the controller to bring the final output.

Three levels of MVC Model:
Model:

This level is very important as it represents the data to the user. This level defines where the application’s data objects are stored. The model doesn’t know anything about views and controllers. So, whenever there are changes done in the model it will automatically notify observers that the changes are made. The model may be a single object or a structure of objects.

Views:

A view is a visual representation of the MVC model. This level creates an interface to show the actual output to the user. However, a view will not display anything itself. It is the controller or model that tells view of what to display to the user. It also handles requests from the user and informs the controller. A view is connected to its model and gets the data necessary for the presentation by asking certain questions. Sometimes, it also updates the model by sending appropriate messages. All these questions and messages are sent back to the model in such an easy terminology that can easily understand the information sent by a model or a controller.

Controller:

The controller is a level that acts as the brain of the entire MVC system. A controller also acts as a link between a user and the system. It provides the user with the input by providing appropriate views to present it appropriately on the screen. The controller understands user output, converts it into the appropriate messages and passes the same to views.

Advantages of using MVC framework
Faster development process:

MVC supports rapid and parallel development. If an MVC model is used to develop any particular web application then it is possible that one programmer can work on the view while the other can work on the controller to create the business logic of the web application. Hence this way, the application developed using the MVC model can be completed three times faster than applications that are developed using other development patterns.

Ability to provide multiple views:

In the MVC Model, you can create multiple views for a model. Today, there is an increasing demand for new ways to access your application and for that MVC development is certainly a great solution. Moreover, in this method, Code duplication is very limited because it separates data and business logic from the display.

Support for asynchronous technique:

The MVC architecture can also integrate with the JavaScript Framework. This means that MVC applications can be made to work even with PDF files, site-specific browsers, and also with desktop widgets. MVC also supports an asynchronous technique, which helps developers to develop an application that loads very fast.

The modification does not affect the entire model:

For any web application, the user interface tends to change more frequently than even the business rules of the .net development company. It is obvious that you make frequent changes in your web application like changing colors, fonts, screen layouts, and adding new device support for mobile phones or tablets. Moreover, Adding a new type of view are very easy in the MVC pattern because the Model part does not depend on the views part. Therefore, any changes in the Model will not affect the entire architecture.

MVC model returns the data without formatting:

MVC pattern returns data without applying any formatting. Hence, the same components can be used and called for use with any interface. For example, any kind of data can be formatted with HTML, but it could also be formatted with Macromedia Flash or Dream viewer.

SEO friendly Development platform:

MVC platform supports the development of SEO friendly web pages or web applications. Using this platform, it is very easy to develop SEO-friendly URLs to generate more visits from a specific application. This development architecture is commonly used in Test-Driven Development applications. Moreover, Scripting languages like JavaScript and jQuery can be integrated with MVC to develop feature-rich web applications.

Thus, the MVC design pattern is surely a great approach to building software applications. The MVC framework is easy to implement as it offers above given numerous advantages. Projects that are developed with the help of the MVC model can be easily developed with lesser expenditure and within less time too. Above all, its power to manage multiple views makes MVC the best architecture pattern for developing web applications.

As a result, today organizations are looking for the .net development of web applications based on MVC architecture for cost and time benefits. There are many web development companies providing MVC development services to develop web applications that satisfy every requirement of the clients. Brainvire is one such .net development company that provides the most desired output to its clients by offering fast and highly interactive web applications using MVC 6 development architecture. Contact us today

Bài viết được dịch từ: medium.freecodecamp.com

Ngày càng có nhiều các lập trình viên front-end áp dụng các kiến trúc một chiều (unidirectional architectures). Vậy đâu là tương lai cho hướng tiếp cận Model-View-Controller (MVC) cổ điển?

Đầu tiên hãy xem lại sự phát triển của kiến trúc front-end.

Hơn 4 năm trước, tôi đã làm việc với nhiều dự án web và dành thời gian để kiến trúc front end và tích hợp framework vào chúng.

Trước năm 2010, JavaScript – ngôn ngữ lập trình để viết jQuery – được sử dụng phổ biến để thêm, chỉnh sửa DOM cho các website truyền thống. Các lập trình viên không cần quan tâm tới kiến trúc của chúng. Những thứ như revealing module pattern là đủ tốt cho cấu trúc code của chúng ta.

Chỉ sau năm 2010 chúng ta mới bắt đầu thảo luận về kiến trúc front-end so với back-end. Đây là lúc các lập trình viên bắt đầu nói về các khái niệm như single page application một cách nghiêm túc. Đây cũng là thời điểm các framework như Backbone và Knockout bắt đầu trở nên phổ biến.

Nhiều nguyên tắc được xây dựng xung quanh các framework này vẫn còn khá mới mẻ tại thời điểm đó, các nhà thiết kế của họ đã tìm kiếm nguồn cảm hứng ở nơi khác. Họ đã chán các practice có sẵn được tạo ra cho kiến trúc ở phía server. Và tại thời điểm đó, tất cả các framework phía server đều liên quan tới một phiên bản của mô hình MVC cổ điển (cũng được biết đến như là MV* vì nó có nhiều biến thể).

Khi React.js lần đầu được giới thiệu như một thư viện render, nhiều lập trình viên chế giễu nó bởi vì họ cảm nhận cách nó xử lý với HTML trong JavaScript không giống với cái họ đã quen thuộc. Nhưng họ đã bỏ qua đóng góp quan trọng nhất của React – Kiến trúc dựa trên Component (Component Based Achitecture).

React không phát minh ra component, nhưng nó đã đưa ý tưởng này tiến một bước xa.

Bước đột phá lớn trong kiến trúc đã bị bỏ qua thậm chí cả với Facebook, khi họ quảng cáo React như là “V trong MVC”.

Năm 2015 mang đến cho chúng ta một sự thay đổi lớn trong tư duy – từ pattern MVC quen thuộc tới các kiến trúc một chiều (Unidirectional Architectures) và các luồng dữ liệu (Data Flows) có nguồn gốc từ Flux và Functional Reactive Programming, được hỗ trợ bởi các công cụ như Redux hoặc RxJS.

Responsive INDUSTRY Website using REACT JS & TAILWIND CSS | Frontend | React Tailwind Project 2024🔥
Responsive INDUSTRY Website using REACT JS & TAILWIND CSS | Frontend | React Tailwind Project 2024🔥

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