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Kotlin Vs Java Backend | When To Use Kotlin?

Kotlin's better than Java? Or vice versa? Let's find out...

Introduction to Kotlin and Java

Kotlin and Java are both powerful programming languages with varied features that make them suitable for different projects. Java, a stalwart in the software development industry, and Kotlin, a more recent entrant, have different approaches to some programming concepts. For instance, both languages support Lambda expressions, but Kotlin takes it a notch higher with inline functions and operator overloading for more performant custom control structures. Kotlin also introduces Smart Casts, a feature not present in Java, that simplifies the handling of variables.

Brief Overview of Kotlin

Kotlin, a statically typed programming language, runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). It is designed to interoperate fully with Java and other JVM languages. Kotlin stands apart with its modern features such as Lambda expressions, inline functions, and operator overloading, which enhance the language’s expressiveness and code readability. Furthermore, Kotlin’s Smart Casts feature significantly reduces the need for explicit type conversion in the code, making it more readable and concise.

Brief Overview of Java

Java, an object-oriented programming language, has been a cornerstone in the software development industry for over two decades. It is renowned for its platform independence, allowing developers to “write once, run anywhere”. Java supports Lambda expressions, which provide functional programming capabilities and can simplify code. However, unlike Kotlin, it does not support inline functions, a feature that could potentially optimize performance by reducing function call overhead.

What is Java?

Java is an object-oriented programming language designed to be simple, portable, and secure, with the key feature of the “Write once, run anywhere” philosophy.

It introduced a simpler syntax (in comparison to C and C++) and enabled building applications to run on multiple platforms. Ultimately, Java significantly streamlined the back-end development for web, mobile, and desktop solutions.

Kotlin's better than Java? Or vice versa? Let's find out...
Kotlin’s better than Java? Or vice versa? Let’s find out…

Key Differences Between Kotlin and Java

When it comes to the comparison between Java and Kotlin, there are several key differences to consider. These differences primarily revolve around the concepts of object-oriented and functional programming, null safety, extension functions, and exception handling. Java is an object-oriented programming language with a rich history and a wide range of applications. On the other hand, Kotlin combines the features of both object-oriented and functional programming, giving it a unique edge over Java. Interestingly, while Java supports implicit conversions, Kotlin does not offer this feature. These differences have significant implications on the type of code written by Java developers and those using Kotlin.

Null Safety in Kotlin vs Java

One of the most notable differences between Kotlin and Java is how they handle null safety. In Java, null variables or objects are part of the Java language, which can often lead to NullPointerExceptions. This can cause significant issues as developers have to constantly check for and handle these exceptions. In contrast, Kotlin offers a feature known as non-nullability. This means that you cannot assign a null value to a variable unless it is explicitly declared as nullable. This feature, combined with Kotlin’s comprehensive exception handling, greatly reduces the risk of NullPointerExceptions, making Kotlin a safer choice for developers.

Extension Functions: Kotlin’s Advantage

Kotlin offers a significant advantage over Java in the form of extension functions. Unlike Java, Kotlin allows developers to extend the functionality of classes without having to inherit from them. This means that developers can add new functions to an existing class without modifying its source code. This feature significantly enhances the flexibility of Kotlin, allowing developers to write code that is more concise, readable, and maintainable. This is one of the key reasons why many developers prefer Kotlin over Java.

Checked Exceptions in Java and Kotlin

Another area where Kotlin and Java differ significantly is in their handling of checked exceptions. In Java, checked exceptions are those that must be either caught or declared in the method where they occur. This can lead to verbose and cluttered code. However, in Kotlin, there are no checked exceptions. This can simplify the code and make it more readable, although it does mean that developers need to be more careful to avoid unexpected exceptions.

Handling Exceptions in Java

Exception handling in Java is achieved through the use of try-catch blocks. When an exception occurs, the Java runtime system will attempt to find an appropriate exception handler, which is a block of code designed to handle that particular type of exception. If it finds a matching handler, it passes the exception to the handler to resolve. However, if it doesn’t find a matching handler, it passes the exception up the calling hierarchy until it finds one or until it reaches the top level of the program. This can lead to verbose and sometimes confusing code, particularly in larger applications.

Handling Exceptions in Kotlin

When it comes to handling exceptions, Kotlin introduces a more streamlined approach compared to Java. Instead of the traditional try-catch blocks, Kotlin encourages the use of higher-order functions and extension functions to handle exceptions. This results in cleaner, more readable code and reduces the chances of unhandled exceptions.

Functional Programming: Kotlin vs Java

In the debate between Kotlin and Java, one of the key talking points is the support for functional programming concepts. While both Kotlin and Java support OOPs and functional programming, Kotlin provides a more comprehensive and expressive functional programming model. This feature, along with its interoperability with Java, makes Kotlin a flexible choice for modern programming needs.

Data Classes: A Kotlin Feature

Data classes are a unique feature in Kotlin, similar to records introduced in Java 8. They are designed to hold data, and automatically generate essential methods like toString(), equals(), and hashCode(). This eliminates the need for boilerplate code, making your codebase more concise and easy to manage.

Smart Casts in Kotlin: An Improvement over Java

Kotlin improves upon Java’s type casting with the introduction of smart casts. In Java, explicit type casting is often required, which can lead to redundant casts and potential ClassCastException. Kotlin’s smart cast feature intelligently handles these scenarios, automatically casting objects within a context where it’s safe to do so.

What is Java?

Java is the instinctive or native language of the Android operating system, and its syntax operates by programs that connect with the computer’s operating system rather than access hardware. This language permits the construction of any software and is compatible with all sorts of computers and operating systems, including Microsoft Windows, Android, and Linux. Sun Microsystems, Inc. (now owned by Oracle) created it and supports Microservices.

Java is mounting a huge comeback
Java is mounting a huge comeback

Kotlin vs Java: Which one to choose?

Should you choose Java or Kotlin for your next software development project? Consider the following factors:

Factor #1: The larger objective

If Android development is the main objective, then Kotlin is the right choice given the productivity advantages and the massive support from Google.

However, if the objective is the creation of larger, more complex products, then working with Java is the better choice. The use of Kotlin for backend projects is a recent phenomenon. For e.g., Spring 5.0 started supporting Kotlin only in 2017, so it still lacks the advantage that Java has in terms of maturity.

Overall, Java is among the top three most popular programming languages due to the various advantages it offers. The latest TIOBE index confirms this. Read the “TIOBE index” for more details.

Factor #2: Can you afford a learning curve?

Kotlin has a concise syntax. Let’s take a deeper look:

  • Developers can write less code, however, post-launch maintenance teams can still easily understand the code. This advantage comes from the concise nature of the language. Read more about it in “The character of Kotlin: Conciseness”.
  • A concise syntax helps with various coding aspects, e.g.:

    • Class creation;
    • Data modifier;
  • Developers have a steep learning curve when first trying to get used to this concise syntax. As an entrepreneur or a project manager, you need to determine whether you can accommodate this learning curve.
  • Now, for the good news. Except for the concise syntax, Java developers face no further learning curve when working with Kotlin. They can use most of the Java coding skills that they learned previously. Read about this in “Java vs. Kotlin: should you be using Kotlin for Android development?”.

Factor #3: Development manpower cost

If you opt for Kotlin, then prepare to incur higher development manpower costs. This is due to the following reasons:

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Kotlin is one of the hottest programming language skills to have today, as you can see in “Best Programming Languages to Learn“. The average salary of Kotlin developers is $ 128k per annum, while the best can earn up to $ 170k per annum, as this ZipRecruiter report

Kotlin job postings increased dramatically during 2018, as per Dice Insights’ report. The prized place of Kotlin in the Android development space has caused this increase. Android development will only increase, further pushing up the demand for Kotlin developers.

Consequently, you should prepare for a longer hiring lead time, which again translates to increased costs.

Factor #4: Limitations of using Java in Android

Android doesn’t support the full range of Java capabilities. Android Studio supports Java 7 fully, however, it only supports a subset of Java 8 features. Read about it in “Use Java 8 language features”.

If your love for Java is holding you back when Kotlin is the better choice then you might as well bite the bullet. Allocate a higher up-front budget, and just take the plunge with Kotlin.

The longer-term benefits, including higher productivity, really are worth it. If you plan to develop multiple apps in the future, you are also investing in improving future development success.

Factor #5: Productivity gain with Kotlin

If productivity gain matters to your project, Kotlin is the way to go. Kotlin productivity levers are as follows:

Library: Kotlin has a far more comprehensive standard library than Java. There is an excellent collection of APIs. The language has many extension functions that developers often require. Extension Functions Kotlin allows extending class functionality without inheriting from them

Programmers can add their custom functions, and they can extend an existing class with this new functionality. Read more about it in “Comparison to Java Programming Language”.

Features: Kotlin has many more features than Java, e.g., null safety, easier generics, string templates, companion objects, data classes, primary constructors, etc. Java is also considered a bit slower as compared to other programming languages. Read more about these features in “Kotlin language documentation”.

Kotlin is an intuitive language with robust code.

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Support for functional programming: Kotlin supports “Lambdas”, i.e., anonymous functions and the language includes them in the standard library. Read “Kotlin by examples: methods and lambdas” to know more about how Kotlin treats Lambdas.

Developers write less code, thanks to the concise syntax. Programmers can avoid writing “boiler-plate” code since Kotlin generates it.

A smaller Kotlin code makes it easier to maintain.

Read more about the productivity benefits of Kotlin in “How Kotlin makes me a more productive software developer”.

Factor #6: Kotlin handles “Null” better

Kotlin handles “Null” well, which is a great advantage over Java. This difference manifests itself as follows:

With Java code, you can assign “Null” to any variable. The challenge comes when using object references with null values, and you get a “NullPointerException”. This is a common challenge and impacts the productivity of the team.

In Kotlin, no “type” can hold null by default. Developers need to explicitly define a “nullable” variable if they want to hold null in it. This rules out “NullPointerException”, which is a significant advantage.

Read more about it in “Kotlin vs Java: key differences between Android’s officially-supported languages”.

Factor #7: Handling long-running network I/O or CPU-intensive tasks

Kotlin has advantages over Java with respect to handling long-running network I/O or CPU-intensive operations. The two languages differ as follows:

In the case of Java, a thread involving a long-running I/O or a CPU-intensive task is blocked. Java allows multi-threading in the background, however, it’s complex.

When programming in Kotlin, developers can run multiple threads. Kotlin supports coroutines. These suspend execution at a certain point without blocking the thread.

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Read “Differences between Java vs Kotlin” for more insights.

Kotlin Practical Use Cases

Kotlin is recurrently used to create Android apps and online and server-side applications. The language is also famous for developing cross-platform apps operating on many operating systems.

Kotlin additionally has a popular programming language for creating microservices and data science applications.

  1. Android Application Development

This use case deserves its description because creating Android apps is one of Kotlin’s most popular applications. While Java has traditionally been the number one choice language for Android programming, Kotlin is a more contemporary choice gaining popularity.

Android has evolved into the world’s most extensively adopted OS, with a stunning 2.5 billion daily users spread across 190 nations.

Some of the primary advantages of adopting Kotlin for the Android development process are as follows:

  • Full Java code compatibility, allows you to progressively transition the application to Kotlin without getting to rewrite everything from the start completely.
  • Kotlin is a substantially more compact language than Java, so you may write fewer lines of code and get the same outcomes, resulting in quicker development times and lower costs.
  • Many features are tailor-made for Android programming, such as integrated assistance with null safety with Android Extensions.

So, if you’re starting your first Android endeavor, Kotlin is an excellent choice for your primary programming language.

  1. Kotlin on the Server Side

In the “Kotlin vs Java” debate, Implementing Kotlin for the backend systems has several advantages. It is suitable for both novice and experienced developers. The Kotlin plugin, for instance, maybe a perfect relocation tool for a Java programmer or developer since it enables quick translation of Java to Kotlin.

Examine how various businesses use Kotlin for the backend and server-side activities. It may inspire you to consider switching to or beginning to use Kotlin for what you want.

We hope you now have a clear idea about what Kotlin programming language is in our debate of “Kotlin vs Java.” Now, we will discuss some significant things you must know while comparing it with Kotlin. Choosing between Kotlin or Java may prove a difficult task.

Should you still LEARN Java in 2023
Should you still LEARN Java in 2023

What is Kotlin?

Jet Brains Corporation, a software development firm renowned for its successful IntelliJ IDEA, its renowned Java IDE (Integrated Developer Environment), initially launched Kotlin, a relatively new programming dialect, in 2011.

The Kotlin programming syntax was created to be a more concise, efficient, and legible alternative to Java, although it is entirely functional and may have been used concurrently. Kotlin has grown in prominence recently, with large firms like Netflix, Google, Amazon, and Twitter all using it.

Kotlin is an entirely novel programming language inspired by Java; however, it is an upgraded version with many more capabilities. It is clean, straightforward, and has less formality and conventions than different programming languages. In our debate “Kotlin vs Java,” the main points distinguish Kotlin.

Kotlin: A Brief Overview

Kotlin is a statically typed programming language that supports functional and object-oriented programming. The syntax and concepts of Kotlin are similar to C#, Scala, and Java. Though the Kotlin language is targeted at JVM (Java Virtual Machine), it also offers variants that target JavaScript or Native code.

Kotlin has a few similarities to Java, as it compiles down to Java bytecode. So, backend engineers with a JVM background find Kotlin easy to grasp.

The three main advantages of using Kotlin for backend development are:

  1. Kotlin code is concise. Using Kotlin drastically reduces boilerplate code.
  2. Kotlin is a safe programming language. It prevents null pointer exceptions.
  3. Kotlin is interoperable. Android, JVM, and browser libraries can be used for Kotlin development.
Google's Journey from Java to Kotlin for Server Side Programming  by James Ward , Brad Hawkes , John
Google’s Journey from Java to Kotlin for Server Side Programming by James Ward , Brad Hawkes , John

News, Technical discussions, research papers and assorted things of interest related to the Java programming language NO programming help, NO learning Java related questions, NO installing or downloading Java questions, NO JVM languages – Exclusively Java

Backend Java 19 vs Kotlin?

Hi, I’ve been searching the last features in java and it seems that Kotlin has become so popular and it has made Java improve. So, what do you think about using kotlin for backend? What do you think about the last features implemented in java 19?

I have the feeling that everywhere people are saying that you should learn Kotlin because is going to replace Java, but I am not sure if this is right. Also because as I said I feel that java is picking up features from kotlin and even improving them.

Java and Kotlin are two popular programming languages widely used for developing Android applications, with Java being the long-standing standard and Kotlin emerging as its contender. Both programming languages can be used for web development and server applications, which may confuse companies when selecting a suitable technology.

Accordingly, this article will explore each tool’s strengths and use cases and break down critical differences between Kotlin and Java. This comprehensive overview will help businesses make a deliberate decision for their next project.

Comparing Kotlin and Java in Practical Scenarios

Java is a widely used general-purpose language, popular worldwide for its versatility. Kotlin is a younger competitor, not as prevalent as Java, but has shown significant growth, particularly in the field of Android development. In fact, Google recognized Kotlin as their second official language for Android development in 2017. Two years later, Kotlin was declared as the preferred language for Android development, leading to a surge in its popularity and usage.

Android App Development: Kotlin vs Java

The Java vs Kotlin debate is quite relevant when it comes to Android app development. Both languages have their unique benefits and drawbacks. For instance, the Kotlin language has built-in null safety, which helps avoid NullPointerException errors. It also supports data classes and lambdas, helping developers code more concisely and expressively. However, Kotlin does not enjoy as much support from the Android community as Java. As a newer language, there are still aspects of Kotlin that need refinement. Therefore, whether Kotlin or Java is the better choice depends largely on the specific requirements of your project. If you’re starting a new project from scratch, Kotlin may be the more concise language to use.

Backend Development: Java vs Kotlin

When it comes to backend development, the Java vs Kotlin debate remains relevant. Both languages have their strengths and weaknesses. Kotlin offers many features that are not available in Java, such as built-in null safety and support for data classes and lambdas, which can make your code more concise and expressive. However, Kotlin does not have the same level of support from the Android community as Java, and being a relatively new language, there are aspects that need to be refined. Therefore, the choice between Kotlin and Java will depend on the specific needs of your project.

JAVA OU KOTLIN EM 2023
JAVA OU KOTLIN EM 2023

Kotlin vs Java: Performance and Memory Usage

When selecting a language for your project, considering performance and memory usage is crucial. Kotlin and Java, both JVM languages, are quite similar in these aspects. This is due to their similar compilation processes and runtime environments, originally designed to target embedded systems with limited resources. The JVM’s multiplatform approach encourages runtime optimizations, which has influenced performance and memory usage in both languages.

However, there are minor performance differences between Kotlin and Java, mostly due to their distinct features. For instance, Kotlin’s inline functions, which are a type of higher-order functions, avoid a function call thereby improving performance. On the contrary, Java invokes additional overhead memory. This is because Kotlin’s inline functions allow the function code to be expanded in place, which sometimes results in more efficient bytecode. Java, however, lacks this feature.

It’s important to note that the JVM was primarily created with a focus on performance efficiency. This focus is evident in both Java and Kotlin, especially considering their use in the development of software for embedded systems. This is because embedded systems typically have limited resources and thus require languages that are efficient in terms of memory usage and performance.

Overall, while Kotlin and Java have similar performance and memory usage, some of Kotlin’s unique features, such as inline and higher-order functions, can provide slight performance improvements. However, these differences are minor and likely won’t significantly impact the performance of your application. Instead, the choice between Kotlin and Java should be based on other factors such as the specific requirements of your project and your familiarity with each language.

Conclusion

While Java has many uses, Kotlin has undoubtedly surpassed it as the preferred computer programming language for developing new Android apps. Google has devoted all of its resources to Kotlin, and all of its cutting-edge technologies are Kotlin-first. Previous app builders should consider incorporating Kotlin into their existing code—IntelliJ has an automated Java-to-Kotlin programming tool—and should consider aspects that go beyond our original question regarding programming choice. Comment your valuable queries on “Kotlin vs Java” and get your answers accordingly!

Why is Kotlin better than Java?
Why is Kotlin better than Java?

Delving Deeper: Unique Features of Kotlin and Java

When we delve deeper into the unique features of Kotlin and Java, we find that each language has its own strengths. The Java compiler is robust and time-tested, creating optimized bytecode that runs efficiently on the Java Virtual Machine. Java compiles your code into machine language, ensuring high performance. On the other hand, the Kotlin compiler is designed for safety and interoperability. It checks for common programming mistakes at compile-time and can compile your code into either Java bytecode or JavaScript, providing flexibility for cross-platform development.

Coroutines Support in Kotlin

When it comes to handling long-running operations, Java offers the ability to create multiple threads in the background. However, managing multiple threads can be a complex task for developers. Kotlin developers, on the other hand, have a more streamlined solution at their disposal. Kotlin provides support for coroutines. These can suspend the execution of blocking threads at particular points, significantly simplifying the task of managing concurrent operations.

Public Fields and Implicit Conversions in Java

Java provides a feature known as public fields or non-private fields. This can be quite useful in cases where the callers of an object need to modify the object’s representation. The convenience arises from the fact that the developer can change the object’s representation without having to adjust the callers. This feature allows fields to be public, thus ensuring that the public API remains unchanged and the program maintains a high level of maintainability. This is in contrast to Kotlin, which does not support public fields.

Kotlin vs Java: Key Differences

Although Java appears to be the uncontested monarch of programming languages, Kotlin is swiftly gaining traction. While it isn’t yet ready to dethrone Java, developers are beginning to grasp the effectiveness and efficacy that Kotlin may prove when developing Android apps.

Kotlin has had exceptional success after Google named it the go-to framework for building Android applications in 2017 and then as its preference two years later.

As Kotlin’s popularity grows, one could wonder what impact this will include on Java – will Kotlin eventually replace Java, or why Kotlin is better than Java?

We’ve developed a list of 10 key differences between Kotlin and Java to assist you in making an informed selection. Take a look at this:

  1. No Safety

NullPointerExceptions are an ongoing source of annoyance for many Java programmers. This exception is thrown when a component reference is given an invalid value, alerting consumers to the problem and forcing them to resolve it before proceeding with their work.

In comparison, you cannot assign null or empty values to properties or entities in Kotlin. As a result, in Kotlin, there don’t exist NullPointerExceptions.

However, if a developer wants to utilize a null value in a specific circumstance, they may indicate this by explicitly tagging the parameter with a query mark.

  1. Extension Features

Substantial work is required to alter existing methods in Java, whereas Kotlin makes it simple with extension procedures. These simplify and quickly transform classes, bringing up a world of possibilities.

  1. Code

Another significant difference between “Kotlin vs Java” is that Java could prove wordy and complex, but Kotlin provides all the same functionality in a simplified, easy-to-understand syntax.

Kotlin, as a compact language, contains fewer lines of computer code than Java, making it easy on the eyes and reducing human-made mistakes.

  1. Support for Coroutines

CPU-intensive multiple threads activities in Java enable sophisticated computations to execute in background mode. However, operating numerous threads might be complex if not properly handled.

On the other hand, developers can halt the current process without having to restart it from the beginning, thanks to Kotlin’s Coroutines support.

  1. Astute Casting

When developing code in Kotlin, Java writers must continually check the type of variables throughout operations. You may rely on its sophisticated compiler that will automatically translate your variables.

  1. Checked Exceptions

Developers aren’t necessary to verify or declare problems in Kotlin. It may be both a benefit and a burden for some.

Java’s verified exception handling can prove inconvenient, detracting from development time. It does, however, ensure robust code with faults already handled.

Also Read: Is Java Dead Or Still Relevant In 2023

  1. Interface Type

Developers in Java must specifically identify the kind of variable they are creating, allowing them more significant influence over how their source code is interpreted.

On the other hand, Kotlin’s typing static values capability may automatically identify the correct data type dependent on its supplied value.

  1. Compilation Period

Java might provide a quicker compilation rate. Furthermore, regarding progressive builds, the two languages are on equal footing. Kotlin and Java give similar efficacy results for this procedure, rendering them matching candidates.

  1. Conversions Widening

Java has automatic widening, which converts smaller types to more significant types automatically, but Kotlin requires a specific conversion step every time you move from tiny to large integers.

  1. Use Cases

It is the last significant difference between “Kotlin vs Java Syntax.” Java is the most popular versatile JVM programming platform for various projects, such as standalone and backend programs. Still, Kotlin has emerged as the favored option among developers for developing Android apps.

Both languages provide considerable adaptability and capability for developing high-quality programs that meet the demands of each user.

Kotlin in 100 Seconds
Kotlin in 100 Seconds

Những điểm nội bật và hạn chế của Kotlin

Kotlin nhận được nhiều sự quan tâm từ các nhà lập trình với sự tăng trưởng nhanh chóng trong thời gian ngắn. Vậy ngôn ngữ lập trình này có gì đặc biệt, những ưu điểm và hạn chế của Kotlin là gì?

Ưu điểm

Tương thích ngược với Java: Kotlin được thiết kế để tương thích hoàn toàn với mã nguồn Java. Điều này cho phép lập trình viên dễ dàng tích hợp Kotlin vào các dự án Java hiện có và sử dụng lại mã nguồn Java đã có mà không cần phải viết lại từ đầu.

An toàn null: Kotlin có tính năng “null safety” giúp giảm thiểu lỗi NullPointerException, một lỗi phổ biến trong lập trình Java. Kotlin đưa ra cú pháp cho phép khai báo kiểu dữ liệu không thể null, giúp tránh được các lỗi liên quan đến giá trị null và tăng cường tính ổn định của ứng dụng.

Cú pháp đơn giản và dễ đọc: Kotlin có cú pháp ngắn gọn và dễ đọc, giúp lập trình viên viết mã một cách dễ dàng và nhanh chóng. Cú pháp Kotlin cũng giúp làm giảm sự lặp lại mã và tăng cường tính rõ ràng trong việc hiểu mã nguồn.

Hỗ trợ lập trình hàm: Kotlin hỗ trợ lambda expression và higher-order functions, cho phép lập trình viên sử dụng các khái niệm lập trình hàm để viết mã ngắn gọn, linh hoạt và dễ dàng đọc hiểu. Điều này giúp tăng cường tính linh hoạt và mạnh mẽ của ngôn ngữ.

Cộng đồng phát triển sáng tạo và hỗ trợ mạnh mẽ: Kotlin có một cộng đồng lập trình viên đông đảo, sáng tạo và nhiệt tình. JetBrains, công ty phát triển Kotlin, cung cấp sự hỗ trợ mạnh mẽ và liên tục cho ngôn ngữ này, và cộng đồng cũng đóng góp vào việc phát triển và cải thiện Kotlin.

Được ưu tiên hỗ trợ trong Android Studio và IDE: Việc này mang lại lợi ích cho lập trình viên bằng cách cung cấp tính năng như hoàn thành mã thông minh, phân tích mã, refactoring dễ dàng, gỡ rối hiệu quả và cập nhật liên tục.

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Nhược điểm

Kích thước file và tài nguyên: Kotlin có xu hướng tạo ra các file.class lớn hơn so với mã nguồn Java tương đương. Điều này có thể làm tăng kích thước ứng dụng và tiêu tốn nhiều tài nguyên hơn.

Tài liệu và nguồn học tập: Mặc dù Kotlin đang trở nên phổ biến, nhưng so với Java, tài liệu và nguồn học tập về Kotlin vẫn còn hạn chế. Điều này có thể làm cho việc học và nắm bắt Kotlin khó khăn hơn đối với một số lập trình viên mới.

Tốc độ biên dịch: Kotlin có thể có tốc độ biên dịch chậm hơn so với Java, đặc biệt khi xử lý các tệp mã lớn. Điều này có thể ảnh hưởng đến thời gian phát triển và kiểm thử của ứng dụng.

Thời gian khởi động ứng dụng: Ứng dụng Kotlin có thể mất thời gian khởi động lâu hơn so với ứng dụng Java tương đương. Điều này có thể gây khó khăn đối với trải nghiệm người dùng khi khởi động ứng dụng.

)Benefits of using Kotlin for backend development

The ability to use Java libraries in Kotlin is a lifesaver, with hundreds of amazing third-party Java libraries available on the market. Developers do not need to write their implementations when there are open-source, ready-to-use libraries that do the job perfectly. The Java, JVM, and Android libraries work flawlessly with Kotlin.

Kotlin and Ktor offer extensive testing libraries and frameworks for development. The Junit framework works seamlessly with Kotlin, and Ktor hosts itstesting library for quickly writing end-to-end tests and integration tests. Using Kotlin and Ktor, developers can use a custom test engine to run their entire application, and handle requests just like the live application would.

Related Post: Unit Testing vs Integration Testing: 4 Key Differences Explained

Java vs Kotlin for Android App Development
Java vs Kotlin for Android App Development

Java Practical Use Cases

Java is frequently used to create enterprise-level applications, including websites for e-commerce, banking platforms, customer relationship management, or CRM applications.

The language is also often used to create Android apps. Java is also an attractive option for scientific and mathematical computing and supports big data tools or applications.

  1. Virtual machine for Java – JVM

What should you understand about the Java virtual machine? It’s critical to understand that Java is a language with compiled syntax, which implies that code is turned into machine-readable code before execution.

Unlike other programming languages such as C++, however, Java’s compiler does not generate computer code for an individual CPU. Instead, it creates bytecode, platform-aware code that the Java Virtual Machine or JVM may run.

The JVM itself varies depending on the computer’s operating system on the basis of which it runs, functioning as a processing unit or “virtual” computer. The JVM makes Java platform-neutral since it knows the operating system’s instruction sequences and other properties.

Also Read: Node JS vs React: When to Use Each for Maximum Development Efficient

Why Compare Kotlin vs Java?

Understanding each technology’s peculiarities may help choose the best-fit tool and optimize the project’s cost and timing.

Close Kotlin and Java comparison helps define each technology’s advantages for different projects.

Programming Languages: A Brief Background

Java is a general-purpose programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995. It is the 6th most used technology worldwide for a wide range of software, from web apps to enterprise solutions.

Kotlin is a relatively new programming language developed by JetBrains in 2011, with the first stable release in 2016. Now it takes 15th place among other technologies and is a popular programming language for Android development.

While Java has been dominant for decades, Kotlin has increased in use over the last few years, according to the Kotlin vs Java StackOverflow surveys. Here is a diagram of Kotlin vs Java statistics through 2018-2022:

A History of Programming Languages

Both technologies appeared at different times and underwent several improvements that influenced their usage and adoption.

Here is а comparison of core milestones:

All these improvements highlight Java’s versatility. Starting in 2018, Java has been updated twice a year, making it a relevant tool so far.

On the other hand, Kotlin is evolving as a multiplatform language with strong support for Android development.

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Concluding Thoughts on Kotlin vs Java

Both Kotlin and Java are powerful general-purpose languages popular for developing a variety of applications, including Android apps. Each has its unique features, and choosing between the two often depends on the specific needs of the project. Transitioning between the two languages requires a clear understanding of their features and differences.

Final Verdict: Choosing Between Kotlin and Java

The choice between Kotlin and Java boils down to your project requirements, experience level, and personal preference. While the learning curve for Kotlin might be steeper due to its smaller community, it offers several modern features and a more streamlined syntax. Java, on the other hand, is a tried-and-true language with a vast library and a large developer community. When transitioning between the two, it’s crucial to understand how common concepts like data transfer objects and lambda expressions operate differently in each language.

Future Trends in Kotlin and Java Usage

Looking ahead, both Kotlin and Java show promising trends. Kotlin’s modern features like null safety, smart casts, and coroutines signal a growing preference for more streamlined and efficient coding. Java, on the other hand, continues to be a reliable choice for large-scale, complex projects due to its robustness and extensive libraries. As technology evolves, both languages are likely to adapt and introduce new features to meet the needs of developers and the wider tech industry.

Kotlin Growth Trends

Over the past few years, Kotlin has shown a promising upward trend in its usage. This can be attributed to its modern features, robustness, and compatibility with Java. Kotlin’s adoption rates have significantly increased, especially in Android app development, mainly because of its concise syntax and interoperability with Java. This growth trend shows a promising future for Kotlin, with more developers likely to transition to it for its practical advantages.

Java Usage Trends

In contrast, Java, being a veteran language, has maintained a steady user base. Although it’s perceived as less modern compared to newer languages like Kotlin, Java’s mature ecosystem and broad range of applications keep it relevant. Its usage in enterprise systems and backend development remains robust. However, the trend shows a slow but steady decline in Java’s popularity, especially in areas where Kotlin and other modern languages have started to gain ground.

When to Use Kotlin?

While Kotlin usage is usually about Android, it offers other use cases as well.

Standout Features/Advantages of Kotlin

Comparing Kotlin vs Java advantages, the former stands out with the following features:

  • Support for multiple programming concepts. Kotlin combines object-oriented programming and functional programming, providing more flexibility.
  • Conciseness. Kotlin’s syntax is more concise and readable, thereby reducing app development time.
  • Multiplatform support. Kotlin is better for Android but can be used for iOS and frontend and backend web applications.
  • Interoperability with Java. Kotlin can be easily integrated with Java to update legacy apps or build new ones on top of the existing Java code.

Use Cases for Kotlin

  • Android applications, from simple utilities, such as calendar and weather apps, to chat applications,
  • Cross-platform mobile apps for Android and iOS to power travel, booking, and other solutions,
  • Server applications to power streaming and other platforms,
  • Full-stack web applications for seamless user experience in consumer apps.

Android App Development

Kotlin has been the preferred programming language for Android since 2019. With Kotlin, engineers can write less code while achieving the same results as with Java, reducing the risk of app crashes. These peculiarities provide reduced time and costs, which made Kotlin a “new Android language” for various industries.

What is the Java Job delusion?
What is the Java Job delusion?

Grappling with the Kotlin vs Java choice for your strategic app?

Kotlin and Java both have their strong points. So to choose the right one you will need to consider the long-term strategic aspects of both platforms, including the fact that Google is slowly moving away from Java.

Making the right choice for your app development can be tricky. If you lack the complete range of skills and team, then I recommend you take professional advice.

Read “How to find the best software development company?” before you engage a development partner.

If you are still on the lookout for a competent and experienced software development partner, DevTeam.Space can help you with its field-expert software developers community.

You can partner with these field-expert app developers for your next software development project. Write to us your initial product specifications via this quick form, and one of our account managers will get back to you for further assistance.

Kotlin vs Java: Which is Better for Your Project?

The choice between Kotlin and Java depends largely on the specific needs of your project. Kotlin, being a more modern language, has a concise syntax and requires less code. It’s officially supported by Google for Android development and offers unique features like coroutines and null safety. On the other hand, Java has been around for longer and has a robust community, extensive documentation, and a vast ecosystem of libraries and tools. It’s a general-purpose programming language that supports almost any operating system, making it a versatile choice for multiplatform projects. Choosing whether to use Kotlin or Java for your project should be based on these factors, as well as your personal preference and familiarity with each language.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Kotlin

Kotlin offers several advantages as a modern programming language, but it also presents a few challenges. On the plus side, Kotlin is a highly declarative language, allowing developers to code in a clear and concise manner. However, its compilation speed may be slower compared to some other languages due to the amount of boilerplate it generates for the JVM. Furthermore, as Kotlin is not as popular as some other languages, the developer community is relatively small. This means that there are fewer learning resources and professional aids available for those starting with Kotlin.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Java

Java, on the other hand, has a long history and a large pool of skilled developers, making it a robust and reliable choice for many projects. It’s platform independent, which means the written code can be run on various devices without modification. Java also provides checked exceptions, a feature that enhances error detection and resolution. However, while Java’s extensive documentation and large array of third-party libraries are beneficial, it can also make the language more complex and challenging for beginners to learn and navigate.

Go is Dying - Long Live Python? WUT | Prime Reacts
Go is Dying – Long Live Python? WUT | Prime Reacts

Kotlin là gì? Lịch sử hình thành của Kotlin

Kotlin là gì?

Kotlin là một ngôn ngữ lập trình đa nền tảng (cross-platform) được phát triển bởi JetBrains, một công ty phát triển phần mềm có trụ sở tại Nga. Kotlin được thiết kế để chạy trên Java Virtual Machine (JVM) và có thể sử dụng để phát triển ứng dụng di động, web và backend.

Mục tiêu chính của Kotlin là cung cấp một ngôn ngữ lập trình hiện đại, có tính năng mạnh mẽ và cú pháp dễ đọc, giúp tăng cường hiệu suất và năng suất của lập trình viên. Kotlin được xây dựng với mục tiêu tương thích ngược (interoperability) với Java, điều này có nghĩa là mã nguồn Java hiện có có thể được tích hợp và sử dụng trong dự án Kotlin và ngược lại.

Lịch sử hình thành của Kotlin

  • Năm 2010: JetBrains bắt đầu nghiên cứu và phát triển Kotlin như một ngôn ngữ mới dựa trên JVM.
  • Tháng 7 năm 2011: Phiên bản M1 của Kotlin được giới thiệu công khai lần đầu tiên.
  • Tháng 6 năm 2013: JetBrains công bố rằng Kotlin sẽ được phát triển dưới dạng dự án mã nguồn mở.
  • Tháng 2 năm 2016: Phiên bản 1.0 của Kotlin được phát hành, đánh dấu bước ngoặt quan trọng trong lịch sử của ngôn ngữ.
  • Tháng 5 năm 2017: Google công bố hỗ trợ chính thức Kotlin trong việc phát triển ứng dụng Android.
  • Tháng 10 năm 2017: Phiên bản Kotlin 1.2 được phát hành với nhiều cải tiến như hỗ trợ cho multiplatform projects và kotlinx.coroutines.
  • Tháng 5 năm 2019: Kotlin 1.3 ra mắt với tính năng chính là Kotlin/Native, cho phép phát triển ứng dụng đa nền tảng không cần JVM.
  • Tháng 12 năm 2020: Kotlin 1.4 được phát hành với các tính năng mới như kotlinx.serialization và JVM IR compiler.
  • Tháng 8 năm 2021: Kotlin 1.5 ra mắt với nhiều cải tiến về tương thích ngược với Java và tính năng mới như sealed interfaces và implicit conversions.

Conclusion

In this article, we considered the benefits of Kotlin vs Java for various projects.

As we compared Kotlin vs Java for mobile development, Kotlin displayed a promising alternative by offering faster development. It is also extensively used for:

  • Utilities (e.g., weather apps) and complex Android apps (e.g., chat apps),
  • Server applications to power streaming and other platforms,
  • Cross-platform mobile apps,
  • Full-stack consumer web applications.

Java is a stalwart tool for developing complex applications, offering stability and scalability. It is used for:

  • Backend web apps with complex business logic,
  • Enterprise solutions (CRM, HRM, banking systems),
  • Web and application servers to power cloud solutions,
  • Android apps,
  • Heavy data apps such as ML, analytics, and BigData.

Whether you choose Kotlin or Java, we offer dedicated middle, senior, and lead engineers to kickstart your project. Contact us to get more information on their availability.

KotlinJava – What Are the Key Differences?

In the world of programming, Kotlin and Java have established themselves as influential languages. As you navigate your path in software development, understanding these languages and their differences is vital.

This comparison dives into the nuances of both Kotlin and Java, with an emphasis on their functionality, syntax, and the robust code they produce. With this knowledge, you can make an informed decision on which language best serves your project needs.

Java and Kotlin have their unique strengths and weaknesses. Java has been praised for its wide use, mature ecosystem, and implicit widening conversions. It, however, has been criticized for its boilerplate code and the potential for null pointer exceptions, which could introduce errors in the code. On the other hand, Kotlin is lauded for its efficiency, especially in developing android applications. It provides a more streamlined syntax, reducing the amount of code written, and has features such as the ternary operator, which is lacking in Java.

STOP Learning These Programming Languages (for Beginners)
STOP Learning These Programming Languages (for Beginners)

Kotlin và Java khác nhau như thế nào?

Sự khác biệt giữa Java và Kotlin là gì? Dưới đây là một bảng so sánh các khía cạnh chính giữa Java và Kotlin:

Java Kotlin
Cú pháp Cú pháp dài và lặp lại Cú pháp ngắn gọn, ít lặp lại
Nullable Types Không hỗ trợ nullable types Hỗ trợ nullable types
Extension Functions Không hỗ trợ Hỗ trợ extension functions
Lambda Expressions Cú pháp dài và phức tạp Cú pháp ngắn gọn và dễ đọc
Tương thích Đầy đủ và tương thích ngược Hoàn toàn tương thích với Java
Hỗ trợ IDE IDE tốt (Eclipse, IntelliJ) IDE tốt, ưu tiên hỗ trợ trong Android Studio
Sự phát triển Đã có từ lâu và mạnh mẽ Phát triển nhanh, ngày càng phổ biến
Cộng đồng hỗ trợ Rộng lớn và phát triển Hỗ trợ cộng đồng đang tăng, nhưng còn hạn chế

Lưu ý rằng bảng so sánh này chỉ tóm tắt một số khác biệt chính giữa Java và Kotlin. Mỗi ngôn ngữ có những ưu điểm và hạn chế riêng, và lựa chọn ngôn ngữ phụ thuộc vào yêu cầu cụ thể của dự án và sở thích của lập trình viên.

Which is Better for Android Development: Kotlin or Java?

Kotlin was designed to address some of the Java pain points, making it more concise, safer, and efficient for Android apps.

Kotlin provides more responsiveness for real-time applications (chats, games, navigators), offering a better experience for mobile users. It also has prebuilt features to prevent mobile apps from crashing.

Being a concise language, Kotlin increases the developer’s productivity due to its simpler syntax and leads to rapid prototyping for Android development.

When choosing Kotlin or Java for Android, the former provides more time and cost optimizations, making it a preferred tool.

Java 21 Is Good?! | Prime Reacts
Java 21 Is Good?! | Prime Reacts

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Is Java faster Than Kotlin?

Java generates 17% quicker than Kotlin for clean builds without the Gradle service. It’s far more typical to compile the same codebase over and over again when you make modifications to it. That’s the type of scenario for which the Gradle daemon was created.

Is Kotlin Functional or OOP?

Kotlin supports both object-oriented & functional programming paradigms. You can utilize it with both OO and FP styles or combine the two.

Why Did Google Choose Kotlin?

Many language elements in Kotlin assist you in avoiding typical programming errors like null pointer exceptions. Kotlin-coded Android apps are 20% less inclined to crash. Therefore, Google also started using Kotlin.

Kotlin – một cái tên đã nhanh chóng ghi dấu trong cộng đồng lập trình viên và trở thành ngôn ngữ lập trình hàng đầu cho phát triển ứng dụng di động và backend. Với sự tiến bộ và khả năng đáp ứng nhu cầu ngày càng cao của các nhà phát triển, Kotlin đã thu hút sự quan tâm từ cộng đồng lập trình toàn cầu. Vậy Kotlin là gì? Hãy cùng TopDev tìm hiểu tất tần tật những thứ liên quan đến Kotlin trong bài viết này!

Making the Right Choice in the Kotlin vs Java Debate

Deciding between Kotlin and Java for your development projects, particularly mobile apps, can be a complex task. Both languages have their strengths and weaknesses. Java, an open-source language, has stood the test of time and has a large community of developers. On the other hand, Kotlin, an improved version of Java, is gaining popularity due to its compatibility with existing Java code and its ability to generate native code for multiple platforms.

When dealing with mobile development, one of the key considerations is the handling of lengthy operations and the creation of multiple background threads. Kotlin excels in this area with its support for coroutines, which simplifies the process. Another advantage of Kotlin is its type inference and smart casts feature, which reduces the need for explicit casting checks in your code. You can even use Java code from Kotlin, making the transition smoother.

However, the choice between Kotlin and Java does not necessarily have to be binary. Both languages can be used in conjunction, capitalizing on their strengths. The choice ultimately depends on your project requirements, your familiarity with the languages, and your willingness to learn new concepts. So, dive into the world of Kotlin and Java, explore their unique features, and make an informed decision that best suits your needs.

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Kotlin & Android Development Course: Build a Quiz Application
Kotlin & Android Development Course: Build a Quiz Application

Understanding the Kotlin vs Java Debate

The Kotlin vs Java debate is fueled by the strengths and weaknesses of both languages. While Java has a long history and wide acceptance, Kotlin brings in contemporary features and improvements over Java. Understanding the nuances of both languages can help you make an informed decision on which one to use for your programming needs.

Why Compare Kotlin vs Java?

The comparison between Kotlin and Java is natural since both languages are used for similar purposes, particularly in Android app development. Java has been the traditional choice for developers, but Kotlin’s rise in popularity since its endorsement by Google has sparked interest. It is essential to compare Kotlin and Java to understand their advantages and disadvantages, and to determine which language better suits your specific project requirements.

Common Use Cases for Kotlin and Java

Both Kotlin and Java have their own strengths that make them suitable for different use cases. Java has been extensively used for building enterprise-grade server-side applications due to its robustness and scalability. It also finds use in Android app development, web application development, and big data technologies. Kotlin, while being a powerful tool for Android app development, is also gaining traction in server-side applications due to its concise syntax and advanced features. The use of Java vs Kotlin largely depends on the specific needs of the project and the preferences of the development team.

Bottomline

There is no single best language or framework that is perfect for any job. The best approach for software development is to familiarize yourself with as many tools as you can. So, when problems and errors arise, you can choose the best tool to resolve them. Kotlin’s website states that its aim of Kotlin is not to be unique; instead, it draws inspiration and best practices from decades of software development. Kotlin, coroutines, and Ktor make an amazing trio for backend development.

Do you wish to hire the best backend developers for your projects? Are you looking to set up a team of software developers for your company? Try Turing.com.Turing has a developer base of more than 3 million software professionals across the globe. With an AI-based matching system, you can hire developers within 4 business days. Visit the hire developers page to learn more.

FAQs

  1. Is Kotlin good for backend?Kotlin has features like static typing, coroutines, Ktor, and null-pointer exceptions, which make it ideal for backend development. Also, many Android developers prefer Kotlin for back-end development, due to Google’s official support.
  2. Is Kotlin better than Java for backend?Kotlin is better than Java for backend development. If Android development is considered, Kotlin has multiple advantages over Java while developing small applications. However, developers prefer Java over Kotlin when it comes to larger and complex applications.
  3. Is Kotlin better than Python?Developers favor Kotlin over Python, as Kotlin covers all the shortcomings of Python. Learning Kotlin can allow devs to target more solutions efficiently and easily. Python is better equipped with the tools for developing sophisticated software, automation systems, and data-related tasks.

Tell us the skills you need and we’ll find the best developer for you in days, not weeks.

(DON'T MISS) Springboot Java Backend Developer Roadmap | Springboot | Resources to learn Springboot
(DON’T MISS) Springboot Java Backend Developer Roadmap | Springboot | Resources to learn Springboot

Asynchronous services with Ktor

While coding REST APIs, developers must also perform a few subordinate tasks like starting an embedded server, parsing the request, and more. However, manually completing these tasks is a hassle, and features like Spring Boot for Java make it very easy to do so.

Kotlin’s ‘Ktor’ is a web framework that can be used for creating easy-to-use asynchronous servers. Here is an example…fun main() {

embeddedServer(Tomcat, 8080) {

routing {

get {

call.respond(“Have a great day!”)

}.start(wait = true)

The above code presents a fully functional Kotlin Ktor server running on an embedded Tomcat server, listens on port 8080, and responds asynchronously with “Have a great day!” to get requests. The best part about this code is – it can be performed with less than 9 lines of code.

Ktor has wider applications beyond this example. Ktor simplifies and streamlines the login and authentication process.

Why should you use Kotlin for backend development?

Android developers heavily rely on Java and Spring for writing backend systems and REST APIs. However, the verbosity of these two programming languages is a huge disadvantage. Though the latest releases have reduced this problem to some extent, developers still need to deal with a lot of boilerplate code while working with Java and Spring.

Here is the code comparison of Java and Kotlin respectively.

Code for creating a class with two read-only fields in Java.public class Employee {

private final String name;

private final int age;

public Employee(String name, int age) {

this.name = name;

this.age = age;

public String getName() {

return name;

public int getAge() {

return age;

The Java code written above is too long to perform. Even the auto-generated constructor and methods are of no use. When reviewing the pull request, developers need to revisit this code to check if it is as per the requirement or not.

Code for creating a class with two read-only fields in Java. class Employee(

val name: String,

val age: Int

The Kotlin code is a lot shorter and simpler than the Java code. The val keyword is used to finalize the variables. The constructor and getters are not auto-generated. They are generated at compile time. If developers do not want an immutable employee object, they can use the var keyword instead.

The POJO classes in Java have auto generated overridden equals() and hashcode(). As a developer, you might feel the need to review them to ensure correctness. On the other hand, Kotlin simplifies the process by offering equals() and hashcode() when you change your class to a data class.

Code for converting class to a data class.

data class Employee(

val name: String,

val age: Int

Why node.js is the wrong choice for APIs (and what to use instead)
Why node.js is the wrong choice for APIs (and what to use instead)

Kotlin vs Java: Key Differences

While Java and Kotlin have similarities, especially for Android development, they also have key differences to consider. Let’s closely examine the distinct peculiarities of each to help you choose a perfect match for your next project.

Object-oriented and Functional Programming

Both Java and Kotlin are object-oriented programming languages, while Kotlin also supports functional programming.

Object-oriented programming organizes code in objects interacting with each other. This allows for the creation of complex applications with improved scalability.

Functional programming organizes code into simpler functions operating separately. Developers often use them to simplify the programming of repetitive tasks, such as app button clicks.

Programming paradigms of Kotlin language vs Java underline that both technologies are good for scalable solutions, while Kotlin additionally provides more flexibility with a combined approach.

Null Safety

The Kotlin vs Java cheat sheet states null safety as the key difference influencing code reliability.

Java attributes null values to any variable, which may lead to errors at runtime and time-consuming debugging.

Kotlin has built-in null safety and prevents null values from being assigned, which makes code more reliable and less prone to errors by default.

This difference makes Kotlin more productive for applications where data accuracy is critical such as healthcare or navigating apps.

Performance

Performance directly impacts app loading times. When comparing Java vs Kotlin performance, it is generally similar.

Java Virtual Machine compiles and executes both languages, leading to comparable performance characteristics with minor differences.

Despite that fact, Kotlin may speed up the development of real-time applications. For example, it simplifies writing asynchronous code providing high performance in solutions with multiple user actions (networking, multimedia, and other apps).

Language Syntax and Readability

The syntax peculiarities usually impact the development speed and maintainability. Therefore, comparing Kotlin vs Java’s syntax may help you choose a more flexible tool.

Java requires writing more boilerplate code. Yet, code consistency may increase the maintainability of projects with multiple teams involved.

In contrast, Kotlin is a more readable and concise language. This allows for faster development and fewer errors, increasing project cost-effectiveness.

To create a complete picture, here are code examples of Kotlin vs Java:

Thus, Kotlin may help decrease the time-to-market, for example, for Minimal Viable Products; while Java may enhance the maintainability of large codebases in complex projects.

Exceptions

Exceptions are used to handle errors during program execution. Both languages have distinct approaches to handling that.

Java requires declaring checked exceptions with additional code.

In Kotlin, all exceptions are unchecked, yet the language provides a concise syntax for handling them, freeing up time for development.

With Java, it’s easier to fix complex error scenarios and create robust enterprise-level solutions. Kotlin may be more efficient for smaller-scale applications or rapid prototyping.

Extension Functions

Extension functions allow adding functionality to existing classes without modifying the source code.

Kotlin offers extension capabilities, whereas Java doesn’t offer any extension function and requires more time to add features.

This Java vs Kotlin difference makes Kotlin applications more flexible to modifications, which may be useful in applications with frequent updates.

Data Classes

Whether Java or Kotlin is used, your project will likely require classes that simply hold data.

Java requires more code for data classes, obligating developers to declare additional fields and functions.

Kotlin provides a simpler way: the developer includes the “data” keyword in a class definition, automatically generating code for common operations.

Here are the examples of data-holding classes:

Kotlin’s brevity underlines its strong focus on faster development. In contrast, the Java approach may improve inheritance — a feature that helps in building more complex data structures.

Security

Regarding Kotlin vs Java security, there are some peculiarities worth noting.

Java has built-in security features to prevent unauthorized data access, ensuring security for confidential data systems.

Kotlin provides language-level features such as null safety and immutability that enable more robust code and prevent app crashes or unexpected changes.

The security features underline Java’s focus on security-oriented projects (banking, e-commerce platforms), while Kotlin may improve stable app operation.

Multiple Threads

Multiple threads help in handling complex tasks on the backend. In this context, Kotlin vs Java speed optimization mechanisms are different.

Java allows for managing multiple background threads, providing complex server-side processing for data-heavy solutions.

Kotlin offers coroutines. Instead of threads, it enables the creation of asynchronous code to handle multiple tasks. This requires less memory and provides app responsiveness.

Comparing these Kotlin vs Java back-end capacities, Java better suits web servers and machine learning apps. At the same time, Kotlin is particularly useful for responsive mobile apps such as games and chat apps.

Memory Management Differences

Proper memory management can accelerate program execution. Among the core differences between Java and Kotlin are their memory mechanisms.

Java uses a garbage collector that automatically frees up memory, which benefits long-running apps.

Kotlin uses a combination of garbage collection and smart casts, which provides more precise control over memory allocation.

Contrasting Kotlin vs Java memory usage makes Java perfect for enterprise solutions, while Kotlin can fit limited memory resources including mobile apps and IoT devices.

IDE and Tool Support

The availability of a robust Integrated Development Environment can improve project efficiency.

Java has a mature ecosystem with IDEs like IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse, and NetBeans, while IntelliJ IDEA primarily supports Kotlin.

Both programming languages are well-supported in Android studio, with Kotlin being a preferred language.

These differences make Kotlin exclusively efficient for Android development, while Java language fits for general-purpose development.

Compatibility and Interoperability

Kotlin is increasingly interoperable with Java, meaning developers can use Kotlin and Java in the same project. This also allows migrating existing Java projects to Kotlin easily.

Unlike Java, Kotlin is interoperable with JavaScript, Swift, and Objective-C, making it suitable for front-end and iOS development.

Adoption Rates of Kotlin vs Java in the Industry and Open Source Projects

The Kotlin vs Java trend emerged in 2017 when Google officially supported Kotlin for the Android platform.

When comparing the adoption rates of these popular programming languages, about 31% of Android apps are built with Kotlin, while 89% of them are listed in the Top 500 US Play Store ranking:

Ultimately, the difference in Kotlin vs Java demand is reflected in steady Java usage for web, mobile, and server apps and the growing adoption of Kotlin for mobile and back-end web development.

Features and Updates Introduced in the Latest Versions

Changes to the latest versions may help fully understand the potential of Kotlin vs Java in 2023.

More specifically, Java’s latest feature, virtual threads, streamlines the development and maintenance of applications with simultaneous user events.

Kotlin, on the other hand, took care of improving the K2 compiler to improve app performance and reduce memory usage.

While Java steps to simplify the development of streaming, trading, and other complex systems, Kotlin makes another step towards responsive mobile applications.

Community Support

When comparing Kotlin vs Java popularity among developers, Java has a more well-established community. The language has been around since 1995 and now offers many tutorials, videos, and forums.

Kotlin, on the other hand, has a relatively smaller community, but it is rapidly growing and becoming increasingly popular.

Extensive Java community support enables developers to easily find solutions to any issues, while the growing Kotlin community is a valuable resource for implementing trending features.

Android Development

In the context of Kotlin vs Java for Android app development, Kotlin has pulled ahead.

In 2019, Google announced the “Kotlin-first approach” for Android, which means new development tools are designed “with Kotlin users in mind.” It is increasingly used by Android developers and businesses as well. In fact, companies like Pinterest and Uber migrated their apps from Java to Kotlin.

Nonetheless, Java remains an official language for Android. Many existing apps still use Java as their primary technology, including Spotify and Twitter.

From the perspective of Java vs Kotlin in Android projects, Kotlin seems more efficient and promising.

Kotlin vs Java Developer Salary

There is no huge difference between the salaries of Java developers and Kotlin developers.

According to Glassdoor, the average Java developer salary in the US is around $99,800 yearly, while Kotlin developers make around $102,600.

However, the Kotlin vs Java job market differs. There are about 34,000 Java vacancies on Indeed.com, while 2,424 companies are looking for Kotlin developers.

Given the increasing popularity of Kotlin, this may result in higher demand and potentially higher salaries for Kotlin engineers.

Expert Opinions on Java and Kotlin

Among Kotlin enthusiasts is Chet Haase, an Android graphic engineer at Google. Back in 2019, he claimed:

However, some professionals favor Java, pointing to its maturity and stability. As stated by Mauricio Lopez, CTO at Jobsity:

Others underline Java’s usage for enterprise software, emphasizing that “80% of enterprises use Java” and will keep being used for business applications.

As mentioned, Java and Kotlin can be used for server-side applications. One of our engineers gladly shared his experience-based opinion in terms of using both tools:

These differing opinions underline the use cases – while some technicians define Kotlin as a first choice for Android solutions, others claim Java is a go-to choice for enterprise projects.

Build APIs with Ktor and Kotlin
Build APIs with Ktor and Kotlin

A great choice for backend development

JavaScript is a popular programming language. The dynamic typing feature of JavaScript works effectively for front-end development. But developers prefer statically typed code for backend development. 6Static typing helps developers feel secure about their server’s performance at runtime by preventing mismatches. Node.js offers the ability to easily write asynchronous code and services. Let us dive deep into how Kotlin offers features like Ktor and Coroutines that are best-suited for backend development.

Related Post: Kotlin vs Java: Which Programming Language Should You Choose?

When to Use Java?

Java has stood the test of time and remains a reliable tool for various projects.

Standout Features/Advantages of Java

Java language stands out with the following features:

  • Object-oriented. Java is based on the concept of organized and reusable pieces of code. This simplifies the maintenance of complex applications.
  • Platform-independent. Java code can run on any platform and suits cross-platform applications.
  • High security. A built-in security system protects the code against malware, making Java a tool for sensitive data apps.
  • Scalability. Java apps can handle raising workloads without compromising performance. This is particularly useful for extending solutions.
  • Multi-threading. With Java, developers can create multiple threads to break down and process complex tasks occurring in Big Data, analytical and similar apps.

Use Cases for Java

  • Backend web applications for eCommerce, education, and more,
  • Enterprise applications like CRM, supply chain management, and banking systems,
  • Desktop applications working across Windows, Linux, and MacOS,
  • Web and application servers to power cloud solutions,
  • Android apps, including games and productivity apps,
  • Heavy computing solutions, including Big Data, ML, and more.

Java Virtual Machine

Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a key component that solved the problem of platform dependence and resulted in increased Java adoption.

In this, Java code is translated into machine code by a Java compiler. Once compiled, Java applications can run on any platform with a JVM installed. It does not require code changes and saves time on creating separate app versions.

Kotlin Tutorial For Beginners 2023
Kotlin Tutorial For Beginners 2023

Kết luận

Kotlin là một ngôn ngữ lập trình đa nền tảng mạnh mẽ và đang phát triển nhanh chóng. Với cú pháp ngắn gọn, tính năng an toàn kiểu dữ liệu, hỗ trợ tốt cho lập trình hướng đối tượng, Kotlin đã thu hút sự quan tâm của cộng đồng phát triển phần mềm. Thêm nữa, khả năng tương thích ngược với Java, sự ưu tiên hỗ trợ trong các công cụ như Android Studio và IDE, cùng với cộng đồng ngày càng phát triển, đã làm cho Kotlin trở thành một lựa chọn hấp dẫn cho việc phát triển ứng dụng đa nền tảng.

Hy vọng rằng bài viết này đã giúp bạn hiểu Kotlin là gì. Và không còn nghi ngờ gì nữa, Kotlin đã tạo ra một sự lan tỏa tích cực trong cộng đồng lập trình và đang trở thành một ngôn ngữ lập trình đầy tiềm năng cho tương lai.

TopDev tổng hợp

Có thể bạn quan tâm:

  • 5 điều lập trình viên Java Developer chắc chắn sẽ thích ở Kotlin
  • Người mới bắt đầu nên học ngôn ngữ lập trình nào?
  • 3 xu hướng phát triển ứng dụng mobile Android

Xem thêm các việc làm công nghệ hấp dẫn trên TopDev

KOTLIN vs JAVA: 8 tính năng khiến bạn muốn chuyển sang KOTLIN ngay lập tức

August 27, 2020

INTRODUCTION

Kotlin là ngôn ngữ lập trình mới được phát triển bởi JetBrains và đang được sử dụng rộng rãi trên cả backend và mobile. Đối với các lập trình viên Java, Kotlin có thể là một ngôn ngữ khá khó chịu khi tiếp cận bởi nhiều khái niệm cũng như các cú pháp (syntax) khác hẳn đàn anh Java. Tuy nhiên, từ sự kiện Google I/O 2019, Google đã chính thức đưa Kotlin làm ngôn ngữ ưu tiên khi phát triển ứng dụng Android.

TBV xin giới thiệu đến bạn đọc một số tính năng nổi bật của Kotlin 1.3 so với ngôn ngữ tiền nhiệm là Java 8. Bài viết dựa trên những cảm nhận mà một thành viên TBV có được trong quá trình phát triển ứng dụng Android với hai ngôn ngữ này.

DATA CLASS

Tương tự như POJO hay DTO trong Java, Data Class của Kotlin được dùng để định nghĩa kiểu đối tượng chỉ chứa field và không bao gồm các phương thức xử lý. Tuy nhiên, cách khai báo Data Class ngắn gọn hơn rất nhiều.

data class DataEmployee(var name: String, var age: Int)

Không chỉ là khai báo giản lược của khai báo class thường, Data Class trong Kotlin còn giúp tự động generate thêm các method cần thiết khác.

Ví dụ:

class ClassEmployee { var name: String = “” var age: Int = 0 }

Ở hai cách khai báo trên, cả DataEmployee lẫn ClassEmployee đều là Kiểu tham chiếu (reference type). Tuy nhiên, vì DataEmployee là một dạng Value Object nên Kotlin đã lén generate thêm method equals(Object o). Vì vậy, khi dùng operator ==, kết quả sẽ trả về `true` nếu tất cả các field hoàn toàn giống nhau.

DEFAULT ARGUMENTS

Chúng ta có thể khai báo giá trị mặc định cho argument khi định nghĩa hàm và class. Điều này không thể thực hiện được trong Java.

fun haveGirlFriend(val name: String = “Computer”, val age: Int = 30)

LAZY LOAD

Kotlin sử dụng một cơ chế khởi tạo lazy để giảm thời gian khởi tạo một class, các biến sẽ được khởi tạo khi nó được sử dụng lần đầu tiên. Java hiện chưa có chức năng này.

val rect: Rect by lazy { Rect(left, top, right, bottom) }

SINGLE-EXPRESSION FUNCTIONS

Trong Java, dù hàm đơn giản hay phức tạp cũng chỉ có một cú pháp định nghĩa duy nhất.

//javaint sum(int x, int y) {return x + y;}

Với Kotlin, các hàm đơn giản chỉ gồm một dòng lệnh, ta có thể viết rất ngắn gọn như sau:

//kotlinfun sum(x: Int, y: Int) = x + y

OBJECT và COMPANION OBJECT

Global Object

Hẳn các bạn đã quen với việc sử dụng singleton trong Java qua từ khóa static. Kotlin lại hoàn toàn khác.

Kotlin không phải là ngôn ngữ hướng đối tượng tuyệt đối như Java hay C#, tất cả phải được quy về Object và Class. Thật ra, khi sử dụng static thì đã không có tính hướng đối tượng, vậy nên Kotlin đã mạnh tay bỏ luôn static. Thay vào đó, Kotlin cho phép khai báo một global object như sau:

object Helper { private var count = 0 fun increasedCount(): Int = count++ }

// Use:

// println(Helper.increasedCount())

Cách khai báo này có gì khác với static của Java?Đúng là cách sử dụng có vẻ giống nhau nhưng helper trong Kotlin mới thật sự là một object, có thể kế thừa từ nhiều interface. Ngược lại, static của Java không thể làm được điều này.

Companion Object

companion.

companion object { private const val NAME = “Name” fun makeIntent(context: Context) = Intent(context, Activity::class.java) @JvmStatic fun makeIntentV2(context: Context) = Intent(context, Activity::class.java) }

Nếu sử dụng hàm này trong các class của Java, ta phải thêm @JvmStatic ngay trên định nghĩa hàm.

COLLECTION OPERATIONS

Tương tự lambda được hỗ trợ từ Java 8, Kotlin cung cấp những common operation hỗ trợ xử lý array (mảng) nhưng với cách viết ngắn gọn và dễ hiểu hơn. Ví dụ: filter, filterNotNull, map, flatMap, reverse, sorted….

var list = mutableListOf(3, 6, 6, 7, 9) var result = list.filter { it % 3 == 0 } print(result) // result: [3, 6, 6, 9]

SCOPE FUNCTION

Kotlin cung cấp một số Scope Function (run, with, let, apply, also) giúp thực thi các block code theo từng object context. Các hàm này sử dụng cho các mục đích khác nhau và có áp dụng this hoặc it như đã nói ở trên. Để sử dụng đúng ta cần tham khảo sơ đồ sau đây:

Non-Null & Nullable Type

Trong Java, mãi đến Java 8 mới xuất hiện annotation @NonNull để check null tự động trước khi sử dụng. Trước đó, khi khai báo không có ? (Nullable), mặc định các kiểu dữ liệu đều là NonNull. Kotlin luôn khuyến khích sử dụng kiểu NonNull nhằm giảm thiểu lỗi NullPointerException phổ biến trong lập trình. Tuy nhiên, nếu bạn cần dùng kiểu Nullable, Kotlin vẫn hỗ trợ kèm theo các toán tử kiểm tra null đơn giản hơn Java.

var company: String? = “Techbase” val a = company!!.length // a = 8 company = null val b = company!!.length // throw NullPointerException company = “Techbase” val a = company?.length ?: -1 // a = 8 company = null val b = company?.length ?: -1 // b = -1 company?.let { // do something if object is not null }

CÓ NÊN CHUYỂN SANG KOTLIN TỪ BÂY GIỜ?

Vậy chúng ta có nên chuyển sang Kotlin từ bây giờ? (ảnh minh hoạ, nguồn: jaxenter)

Những tính năng kể trên chỉ là một phần những khác biệt (cũng có thể gọi là cải tiến đáng kể) từ Kotlin. Nhìn chung, đây là một ngôn ngữ tuyệt vời. Với cùng một ý tưởng, lượng code của Kotlin ít hơn và dễ đọc hơn rất nhiều so với Java, đặc biệt là phần định nghĩa class/function. Nói cách khác, số lượng dòng code tỉ lệ thuận với thời gian code và tỉ lệ nghịch với độ chính xác mỗi dòng code.

Một vấn đề nhỏ duy nhất là Kotlin vẫn đang giai đoạn phát triển và thay đổi. Mỗi khi có version mới sẽ có sự thay đổi syntax so với trước đó và sẽ có thêm nhiều keyword mới (lượng keyword hiện tại đã hơn nhiều so với Java). Thỉnh thoảng, bạn sẽ gặp một số task kiểu như “upgrade Kotlin 1.xxx”. Không cần phải lo, vì thường thì IDEs đã giúp bạn phần lớn rồi!

Nếu bạn đang dùng ngôn ngữ Java để viết ứng dụng, hãy thử chuyển sang Kotlin và cảm nhận nhé!

Các tài liệu có thể tham khảo thêm về Kotlin

https://kotlinlang.org/docs/reference/https://try.kotlinlang.org/https://github.com/Kotlinhttps://medium.com/@elye.project/mastering-kotlin-standard-functions-run-with-let-also-and-apply-9cd334b0ef84

Why Should You Use Kotlin for Backend Development?

Is Kotlin good for backend? Is Kotlin better than Java for backend? Is Kotlin better than Python? What is Kotlin backend development? Keep reading this post to find out. Kotlin is a phenomenal programming language for Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and Android devices. Native Android developers prefer Kotlin since Google announced it as its official language for Android Development at the May 2017 I/O event.You can imagine Kotlin’s popularity by considering that more than 60 percent of top-grossing apps and 71 percent of newly launched apps are based on Kotlin. Most Android developers prefer Kotlin as it resolves a lot of issues with Java coding. Due to its perfect sync with Java, a lot of Android developers use Kotlin to rewrite applications.

Kotlin undoubtedly performs well with front-end development. However, the following blog post is a deep dive into Kotlin and its applications for backend development. Android developers can refer to this blog post to learn about fast and reliable asynchronous Kotlin backend development, and its uses for server-side apps or REST APIs.

Related Post: A Complete Guide to APIs: What are APIs and Their Types

Coroutines in Kotlin

Having a multi-threaded application can help you unlock the maximum capacity of your server. However, Java makes it difficult to create multi-threaded applications. To create multi-threaded applications in Java, developers can follow either of the two methods: 1. To extend the Thread class or 2. Implement Runnable interface. But junior developers may find it difficult to tell the difference between these two methods. It can be confusing to decide whether to start a thread with the run method, or start method, and should you start a thread manually, or use a thread pool.

Kotlin offers a better solution to this problem with a feature called ‘Coroutines’. Coroutines help developers write asynchronous, non-blocking code. With coroutines, functions (computation) can be paused at some point and resumed later on. The programming model does not change while writing non-blocking code. So, writing non-blocking code is nearly the same as writing blocking code. Here is an example…

fun sendRequest(): Int {

/* perform some heavy work */

return 1;

This example displays a blocking function. The thread executing this code won’t perform any other tasks until the function returns. In case of an API or a database call, this action could cause a few seconds of delay. Turning this function into a non-blocking function can resolve this issue. Here is an example…

suspend fun sendRequest(): Int {

/* do some heavy work */

return 1;

This is how developers can turn their functions into non-blocking functions that can be suspended. If the ‘heavy work’ is a simple delay() function call of 20 seconds, the thread will execute other tasks for 20 seconds. Then it will resume the execution of sendRequest() function. Thus, non-blocking code can be achieved with a single keyword in Kotlin.

O que você precisa saber sobre o Kotlin em 2024! 💡💡💡 - POLEMICAS VAZIAS #4
O que você precisa saber sobre o Kotlin em 2024! 💡💡💡 – POLEMICAS VAZIAS #4

Making the Leap: Transitioning from Java to Kotlin

Transitioning from Java to Kotlin can be a smooth process due to their many similarities. However, understanding the differences between these two languages is key to a successful transition. Kotlin offers several features that can enhance your coding experience, like null safety, smart casts, and extension functions. It’s important to familiarize yourself with these features to fully leverage the benefits of Kotlin.

Similarities Between Kotlin and Java

Despite their differences, Kotlin and Java share several commonalities. For instance, their approach to data transfer objects is quite similar. Both languages have constructs that hold information about data or state and include methods like toString, equals, and hashCode. In Java, these are known as records, while in Kotlin they’re called data classes. Furthermore, both languages support lambda expressions, a feature that allows you to create anonymous functions. Understanding these similarities can make transitioning from Java to Kotlin easier.

Differences to Keep in Mind While Transitioning

While there are many similarities between Kotlin and Java, there are also key differences to note. For example, Kotlin’s syntax is more concise, which can make your code easier to read and write. Additionally, Kotlin has built-in null safety to prevent null pointer exceptions, a common source of bugs in Java. Kotlin also supports coroutines, which allow for simpler asynchronous programming. Being aware of these differences can help you avoid common pitfalls when transitioning from Java to Kotlin.

Historical Background of Kotlin and Java

Understanding the historical background of Kotlin and Java provides valuable context to their evolution and design decisions. Java, developed by Sun Microsystems in the mid-1990s, has undergone numerous updates to keep pace with modern programming needs. Kotlin, on the other hand, is a relatively new language developed by JetBrains. It was designed to address certain shortcomings in Java, such as verbosity and null safety issues. Both languages have embraced lambda expressions, indicating a shift towards functional programming paradigms in recent years.

Origin and Evolution of Java

Java, a widely used programming language, was developed by James Gosling and his team at Sun Microsystems in 1995. Its main aim was to design a platform-independent language for software development. As an object-oriented language, it revolutionized the world of web applications with its “Write Once, Run Anywhere” policy. Over the years, Java has evolved significantly with numerous version updates, each one improving upon its performance, security, and coding efficiency.

Origin and Evolution of Kotlin

On the other hand, Kotlin is a more recent arrival in the programming world. It was introduced by JetBrains in 2011 with the intention of addressing some of the issues developers faced with Java, particularly in terms of verbosity and null safety. Kotlin was officially endorsed by Google for Android app development in 2017. Since then, its popularity has surged, thanks to its concise syntax and interoperability with Java.

Top 5 KEY DIFFERENCES between Java and Kotlin
Top 5 KEY DIFFERENCES between Java and Kotlin

Frequently Asked Questions on Kotlin vs Java

Kotlin is a statically typed programming language for JavaScript and a Java virtual machine (JVM). It is not a purely object-oriented programming language or a functional programming language. It was created to try to overcome some of the shortfalls of the Java language. While Kotlin is much-loved, you should examine your programming requirements carefully before choosing between the two.

If you plan to be an Android developer it is worth learning both Java and Kotlin languages. If you had to choose between the two then Java is the most widely used language for Android development so is the best option.

Kotlin is gaining in popularity but it will be a long time before it replaces Java, if at all.

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Kotlin vs Java Which is Best For Android Backend Development

Introduction to Kotlin and Java for Android Backend Development

Kotlin and Java are two popular programming languages for Android backend development. Java, a time-tested language, has been the usual choice, whereas JetBrains’ Kotlin has acquired rapid appeal due to its modern features and improved readability.

Both languages have strong ecosystems, but Kotlin’s succinct syntax and null safety make it a tempting choice. This blog post will evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of Kotlin vs Java, assisting developers in determining which language is best suited to their Android backend development needs.

Syntax and Language Features

When determining which language to employ to hire backend developers for your Android applications, it is critical to compare the syntax and language characteristics of Kotlin vs Java. Kotlin has a more succinct and expressive syntax, which drastically reduces boilerplate code. For example, Kotlin’s data classes make it easier to create basic, immutable classes, whereas Java requires verbose getters and setters.

Kotlin also includes nullable and non-nullable types, which help to avoid null pointer exceptions, a well-known Java problem. Furthermore, the functional programming features of Kotlin, as demonstrated by its concise lambdas, provide a more elegant approach to dealing with collections. Java, on the other hand, has been changing, integrating some Kotlin-inspired features while maintaining its verbosity. Thus, recognizing these syntax differences is critical when deciding which language to choose.

Performance and Efficiency

In the world of Android backend development, Kotlin and Java have distinct performance characteristics, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Bytecode generation, a critical component, favors Kotlin due to its short syntax, resulting in a more compact bytecode than Java. This benefit contributes to faster compilation times, which increases developer productivity. In terms of runtime performance, Java’s lengthy history in the Android ecosystem has resulted in optimized virtual machine (VM) support.

Java provides efficient memory management as well as well-established tuning tools, making it an excellent choice for resource-intensive applications. Kotlin, on the other hand, makes use of features such as inlining and extension functions to improve runtime performance even further. Finally, the decision between Kotlin vs Java for Android backend development should be based on the project at hand.

Tooling and Ecosystem

The distinction between Kotlin and Java in Android backend programming goes beyond language characteristics. It also includes the development tools and ecosystem support that each language provides. Because of its smooth interoperability with Java, Kotlin has quickly acquired popularity, and it is well supported by Android Studio, Google’s official IDE.

Kotlin’s compatibility with Java-based Android frameworks and libraries ensures an easy transition for developers. Meanwhile, Java, with its lengthy history, has a vast ecosystem of libraries and frameworks, including popular options such as Spring Boot. Java developers can rely on the familiarity and maturity of these technologies. Finally, the decision between Kotlin and Java may come down to personal preference, project requirements, and the existing codebase, as both have advantages and disadvantages.

Concurrency and Multithreading

Understanding how Kotlin and Java manage concurrency and multithreading is critical when looking to hire backend developers for Android applications. Kotlin’s coroutines, which simplify asynchronous programming and make code more understandable, use a unique approach. Coroutines provide benefits such as succinct syntax and efficient thread management, making it easier for developers to handle concurrent operations.

Java, on the other hand, is based on threads, which allow fine-grained control but can result in complex and error-prone code due to the requirement for explicit thread management. When employing backend developers, the decision between Kotlin coroutines and Java threads should be taken into account because it can have a major impact on the maintainability and efficiency of your Android backend coding.

Community Adoption and Future Trends

Kotlin and Java acceptance rates in the Android development community have shifted dramatically in recent years. Because of its simple syntax, better safety features, and interoperability with Java, Kotlin, which was launched as an official Android programming language in 2017, has witnessed a spectacular surge in popularity. Kotlin has been adopted by many developers due to its ability to streamline code and boost development productivity.

Furthermore, Google’s official backing for Kotlin has cemented its position as a prominent language choice. Java, on the other hand, is still a mainstay in the Android ecosystem, with a large pool of legacy code and a thriving development community. However, the rise of Kotlin has resulted in a gradual shift in Android backend development to this more current language. With Google’s ongoing

Conclusion

The choice of Kotlin or Java for Android backend development is determined by project requirements and developer preferences. While Kotlin has some modern advantages, Java is still a good choice for legacy support. Finally, the decision should be based on specific project requirements and team competence.

The argument over “Kotlin vs Java” –the superior programming language – is never-ending. Is one superior to the other for any reason?

Android apps are deeply engrained in our everyday lives, from social connections to professional and professional activities.

If you’re a wise businessperson trying to capitalize on this massive market potential, you must choose the ideal programming language for your endeavor – one that allows maximum efficiency while producing optimal outcomes.

In this fantastic blog, we will look into the origins, history, characteristics, and use cases of each language to assist you in deciding which to employ.

Continue reading to study more about the fundamental distinctions between “Java vs Kotlin,” which is the better option for specific applications, and if Kotlin displacing Java is a genuine possibility. We will also talk about why Kotlin over Java is used worldwide.

Table of Contents

Navigating the Kotlin vs Java Landscape: Useful Resources and Further Reading

Whether you’re a seasoned developer or a beginner keen on exploring Kotlin and Java, there are numerous resources available to help. Books, online tutorials, coding bootcamps, and documentation serve as educational tools, while communities and forums offer a space for interaction, queries, and discussions. These resources can significantly aid your learning journey and decision-making process in choosing between Kotlin and Java.

Educational Resources for Java and Kotlin

Both Kotlin and Java have a wealth of educational resources available. For Kotlin, you can explore topics such as lambda expressions, null-safety, smart casts, and coroutines through online tutorials and documentation. Java, on the other hand, offers extensive resources on topics like implicit conversions, public fields, and handling exceptions. These resources are designed to cater to learners of different levels, from beginners to experts. Taking advantage of these resources can help you gain a deeper understanding of both languages.

Communities and Forums for Kotlin and Java Developers

Participating in communities and forums can be a valuable part of learning and applying Kotlin and Java. These platforms offer a space for developers to share experiences, ask questions, and discuss issues. You can find practical insights, code snippets, and solutions to common problems. Some of the popular communities include Stack Overflow, Reddit, and the official Kotlin and Java forums. Engaging in these communities can not only enhance your knowledge but also connect you with other developers in the field.

Google Chooses Kotlin over Java!
Google Chooses Kotlin over Java!

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Kotlin Vs Java: Breaking Down The Differences For Business Leaders
Kotlin Vs Java: Breaking Down The Differences For Business Leaders
Kotlin Vs Java: Breaking Down The Differences For Business Leaders
Kotlin Vs Java: Breaking Down The Differences For Business Leaders
Kotlin Vs Java: Breaking Down The Differences For Business Leaders
Kotlin Vs Java: Breaking Down The Differences For Business Leaders
Why You Should Use Java Backend Infrastructure
Why You Should Use Java Backend Infrastructure

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