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Java Api Framework Android | Device Drivers

Android Architecture Explained in Detail

Layers

The following are the layers that compose the Android architecture as labeled on the diagram:

  1. Application
  2. Application Framework
  3. Android Runtime and Core Libraries
  4. Linux Kernel

Developing an operating system for mobile devices comes with a set of challenges. Using this layered architecture ensures that different problems are broken down and solved at different levels.

A layered architecture helps separate concerns and ensure android software developers don’t have to deal with low-level problems at every turn. They can instead focus on delivering business value concerned with the layer they’re working on.

Developers are working on making apps don’t have to worry about the application framework implementation. That work is left for the system developers working on the Application framework.

The Application Framework developers work on developer experience and don’t have to worry about the low-level drivers. Low-level system engineers can focus completely on low-level components such as Bluetooth or Audio drivers and the like.

Android’s layered structure makes it possible to apply updates with bug fixes or improvements to each layer on its own. This ensures that changes across layers don’t interfere with each other. This makes it possible for people working at a different level of the OS to work with obstructing each other as new updates and releases are done.

Top 8 Android Frameworks in 2023

Different Android frameworks offer different strengths and features. Because of that, it is essential to take certain things into consideration before choosing the most suitable for respective projects. Some typical things that must be considered are performance, cross-platform compatibility, user-friendliness, and availability of community, to mention a few. However, here are the best frameworks for Android app development in 2023.

Flutter Framework

This first framework on our list is developed directly by Google. The Flutter framework is designed to assist developers in building progressive cross-platform applications. It uses a single codebase to produce apps for different platforms. This makes it a great choice if you want to create a single app or program that can be used across numerous platforms.

Apps built using the Flutter framework frequently outperform native apps in terms of speed. This is because Flutter employs an operating system-integrated graphics engine called Skia. With this, Flutter apps are able to utilize the device’s native hardware to produce slick and responsive user interfaces.

Flutter is also renowned for its stunning and expressive user interface. Programmers can take advantage of the Dart programming language, which enables the creation of incredibly configurable and dynamic user interfaces and is used to generate Flutter widgets.

Key Features of the Flutter Framework
  • Apps built on Flutter apps are often high-performance, and they can be as fast and sometimes even faster than natively built apps.
  • The Flutter framework builds apps on a single codebase for different operating systems, including Android, iOS, web, and desktop. This means developers can save time and money by not having to work on new codes.
  • The Dart programming language allows developers to create highly customizable and interactive UIs for the widgets.
  • A large and active community of developers means there are always new plugins and features.

The Flutter framework is a great choice if you need a high-performance, cross-platform framework that also offers a beautiful and expressive UI. Flutter also has a sizable and vibrant development community that can offer guidance while learning to use.

React Native

JavaScript programmers can construct native mobile apps using the open-source framework React Native. It was created by Facebook in 2015, and since then, it has become especially popular as an Android framework.

React Native uses the JavaScript library to create user interfaces. Its apps look and feel like native apps since they are rendered using native UI components. This makes React Native an excellent alternative for apps where the performance is critical or needs to be integrated with native features.

React Native is renowned for being simple to use, so developers who are comfortable with JavaScript may pick it up fast. Many Fortune 500 firms and major firms like Instagram, Walmart, Airbnb, and Tesla utilize the framework to create native mobile apps. The React Native framework community is still expanding, and 14% of the top 500 US applications currently installed use the framework.

Key Features of the React Native
  • Uses Code Push feature – an option that helps to push out the app updates immediately, without the user having to consent and reload the app on his Android device.
  • Supports incorporating external third-party plugins.
  • Spot the bugs much easier with the use of the declarative programming approach.
  • The “Hot Reloading” feature speeds up building new features and bug fixing.
  • The possibility to share non-UI dependent codes.

If you are looking for a framework that can help you launch customized, cross-platform, high-quality apps much easier and faster, then React Native is a great option.

Ionic Framework

Ionic is another well-known open-source Android framework. It is publicly approved by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and makes it possible to build hybrid apps using web technologies like HTML and JavaScript. Another benefit of this framework, apart from its cross-platform functionality, is the large size of its developer community. It is especially advantageous for new users because they can get support there. It also has the capacity to incorporate AngularJS. These things put together have given it a reputation for simplicity among developers.

The Ionic framework powers 15% of the apps in the Google Play Store and also claims to have around 5 million developers worldwide, according to Ionic.

Key Features of the Ionic Framework
  • The framework extends capacitor with a large collection of mobile-optimized UI components in addition to using web technologies that are familiar to the majority of developers. It integrates with JavaScript frameworks like React, Angular, and Vue, making it incredibly user-friendly for developers.
  • A sizable and vibrant community of Ionic developers constantly creates fresh resources, plugins, and components. This implies that there are many options available to you when designing your app, making it simple to acquire assistance and support when you need it.
  • Apps built using Ionic may be designed to feel and appear native. This is because Ionic uses native APIs to access the hardware and OS of the device.
  • Ionic also makes it possible to view changes to the app immediately through a feature known as hot reloading.
  • Ionic apps are modular, which means they are composed of a number of tiny, independent parts. This makes it simple to reuse code and make necessary app updates.

Ionic is a wonderful option overall for creating hybrid apps. It is simple to learn and use and has a sizable developer community. It can be utilized to produce high-quality, cross-platform apps for various startups and web development firms across industries, from the health and insurance sectors to hospitality IT.

Xamarin Framework

If you decide to use Xamarin to build your app, you will get a great tool for cross-platform mobile app development. Because of that, you can create native programs for Android and iOS that share code written in C#. Most companies prefer this framework when they want cross-platform functionality but don’t want the stress of having to maintain the creation and storage of separate codebases for each one. Xamarin also comes with thorough documentation, and this makes using the framework simple to learn.

Key Features of the Xamarin Framework
  • Apps perform like natively created ones as they are built in C# and then compiled into native code for each platform.
  • Developers are able to share up to 90% of their code between platforms, thus saving both time and money.
  • Developers can use simple visual designers to create user interfaces.
  • There are built-in debugging tools for troubleshooting your mobile application.

Because of its reliability, major corporations like Microsoft and Kellogg’s often use the Xamarin Framework in creating programs. Data also shows there are over 13,000 apps built with this framework. Indeed, if you are looking for a cross-platform app development framework that offers native performance and cross-platform development, or you are looking to develop a mobile app for your business, Xamarin is a good option to consider.

NativeScript

NativeScript is an open-source framework that helps programmers create native mobile apps by utilizing Angular, TypeScript, and Vue. Although Progress Telerik originally created it, nStudio currently maintains it.

One of NativeScript’s standout features is the access to native Android APIs it gives. This means that NativeScript apps can be just as quick and effective as native Android apps when using the platform’s native offering engine. Numerous native Android features, including geolocation, push notifications, and camera access, are also supported by NativeScript.

The use of JavaScript by NativeScript is another unique feature of this framework. Due to its popularity, developers generally find it easy to learn and use NativeScript. It shouldn’t come as a surprise that several major industries, like Microsoft, Walmart, and IBM, also depend on NativeScript.

Key Features of NativeScript
  • Apps created with NativeScript are potentially as quick and responsive as native-built Android apps due to their use of native Android APIs.
  • NativeScript is built with JavaScript – a popular and widely used programming language.
  • NativeScript supports TypeScript, a superset of JavaScript that ensures type safety.

Is what you’re after a hybrid solution — one that allows you to incorporate the best of both native and web application development? If so, NativeScript is worth taking a closer look at – it offers a unique platform capable of helping you create cross-platform apps using third-party libraries!

Apache Cordova

This framework was formerly known as PhoneGap. Apache Cordova is an open-source framework that allows developers to use web technologies to build hybrid, cross-platform apps. Apps are developed using a container that displays web content in a native app. As a result, it’s possible to develop and deliver apps fast.

This Android framework is well-known and is a popular choice for enterprise app development. Major companies like IBM and Cisco also use it to create their mobile apps.

Key Features of Apache Cordova
  • Development and delivery of cross-platform apps are possible on this framework.
  • It is great for new programmers.
  • Native plugins can be used to augment Cordova apps.
  • Cordova is a well-known framework with a significant developer community. It is simple to locate assistance and support when creating Cordova apps.

Framework7

Framework7 is considered a relatively recent Android framework, though it allows the development of cross-platform apps. It is already popular among mobile app developers due to its array of distinctive features. In fact, Framework7 is the top-ranked cross-platform mobile framework on GitHub.

Key Features of Framework7
  • Both Android and iOS devices have a natural look and feel when using Framework7 apps because Framework7 leverages native components and APIs.
  • A rich UI library with over 60 components, including buttons, forms, tables, and more.
  • Robust routing mechanism that makes switching between screens simple.
  • Built-in state management system to monitor the status of your app.

According to a recent poll among developers, apps built with Framework7 are of very high performance, usability, and design level. This Android framework is perfect for someone who needs a user-friendly but feature-rich tool. Regardless of one’s competency in programming, this option is a suitable choice for all.

JQuery

JQuery Mobile is a framework for Android development that employs HTML5 technology to develop incredibly responsive platforms that can operate on an assortment of systems, from Android and iOS to Windows, Symbian, and Blackberry. It is built on the JavaScript jQuery framework. According to a 2023 Stack Overflow study, JQuery is recognized as the third most popular framework and is used by 22.87% of developers. It is also used to run some popular mobile applications, such as the Foursquare and Starbucks apps.

Key Features of JQuery Mobile
  • The layout of JQuery Mobile applications is automatically changed to fit the size of the screen they are being presented on. This implies that regardless of the device’s screen size, your app will look amazing.
  • JQuery Mobile API makes it simple to design compelling and interactive user experiences, even for beginners.
  • JQuery Mobile apps load content and switch between pages using AJAX. This gives your app a quick and responsive feel.
  • You can utilize the theme roller feature included with JQuery Mobile to alter the appearance and feel of your app. And if you’re in the mood, you can even develop your own themes.
  • For JQuery Mobile, there are a variety of plugins that give the framework further functionalities. For instance, plugins that increase support for charts and social media integration.

The JQuery Mobile provides a powerful and easy-to-use mobile framework for Android development.

Android Architecture Explained in Detail
Android Architecture Explained in Detail

Framework Java là gì?

Các framework java phổ biến

Framework Java là các phần code viết sẵn được các nhà phát triển sử dụng để tạo các ứng dụng bằng ngôn ngữ lập trình Java. Các Framework này là một loại khung cụ thể dành cho ngôn ngữ lập trình Java, được sử dụng làm nền tảng để phát triển các ứng dụng phần mềm và chương trình Java. Một Framework Java được tạo ra được sử dụng nhiều lần để các lập trình viên có thể lập trình ứng dụng của họ mà không cần code từ đầu.Có thể ví framework như các vật liệu để giúp lập trình viên dễ dàng gắn kết dự án của mình mà không mất quá nhiều công sức.

Các Framework Java có thể bao gồm các lớp được xác định trước (các loại đối tượng) và các hàm có thể được sử dụng để xử lý, nhập và quản lý các thiết bị phần cứng, cũng như tương tác với phần mềm hệ thống. Điều này phụ thuộc vào loại framework, mức độ kỹ năng của lập trình viên, những gì họ muốn thực hiện và sở thích của riêng họ.

Có rất nhiều loại Framework Java, việc lựa chọn framework nào hoàn toàn phụ thuộc vào vấn đề ưu tiên của lập trình viên. Dựa vào từng nhu cầu khác nhau, các công cụ trong framework sẽ giúp lập trình viên dễ dàng tạo ra các giao diện mà người dùng yêu thích. Theo cách này, lập trình viên không cần code quá cao siêu vẫn có thể tạo ra được những sản phẩm đi vào lòng người.

Nếu bạn muốn việc lập trình Java trở nên dễ dàng hơn, hãy cùng điểm qua các framework Java và khám phá các điểm tương đồng cũng như khách biệt của các loại framework này.

Android Runtime and Core/Native Libraries

1) Android Runtime

Android currently uses Android Runtime (ART) to execute application code. ART is preceded by the Dalvik Runtime that compiled developer code to Dalvik Executable files (Dex files). These execution environments are optimized for the android platform taking into consideration the processor and memory constraints on mobile devices.

The runtime translates code written by programmers into machine code that does computations and utilizes android framework components to deliver functionality. Android hosts multiple applications and system components that each run in their processes.

Java Android App using REST API - Network Data in Android Course
Java Android App using REST API – Network Data in Android Course

Android Application

This is the layer that end-users interact with. It is on this layer where application developers publish their applications to run.

Android, by default, comes with a set of applications that make android devices usable from the offset.

  1. Home: The Homepage on Android consists of launcher icons for commonly used applications that the end-user may want quick access to. You can start the apps by clicking on the launchers of these apps. At the very top of the screen, you have widgets that show network, battery level, date, and time.
  2. Contacts: Android, by default, provides a means to store and retrieve contacts. Contact information is shared across other apps to enhance functionality.
  3. Messages: Android provides the capability to send and receive SMS messages.
  4. Email: Android comes with native support for email services. Setting up an Android device requires a Gmail account. Setting up Gmail activates other email-dependent components on Android devices. Some email dependent features include security and recovery mechanisms. Another email dependent feature is access to the Play Store, a marketplace for Android applications.
  5. Browser: Android comes with a default browser.
  6. Notification Drawer: Swiping down on the screen exposes the notification drawer. It provides application events that the user should be aware of. Above the notification are a set of shortcuts to some commonly used device settings that the users can toggle. These settings include on and off toggles for various hardware components such as Bluetooth and Wifi. Long pressing these events enables us to navigate to their configurations page.

This layer is also referred to as user-level in contrast to the layers below that are mostly tuned for application development. Application developers create and customize the experiences for their apps on this layer. The layers below the application layer are not customized by application developers. They are considered part of the system layer. These layers are customized by device manufacturers, Google android teams, or third parties who want to use the Android source code for their product or research.

Native C/C++ libraries

Many core Android system components and services, such as ART and HAL, are built from native code that requires native libraries written in C and C++. The Android platform provides Java framework APIs to expose the functionality of some of these native libraries to apps. For example, you can access OpenGL ES through the Android framework’s Java OpenGL API to add support for drawing and manipulating 2D and 3D graphics in your app.

If you are developing an app that requires C or C++ code, you can use the Android NDK to access some of these native platform libraries directly from your native code.

Java API Tutorial For Beginners | Java API For Restful Web Services | Java API Example | Simplilearn
Java API Tutorial For Beginners | Java API For Restful Web Services | Java API Example | Simplilearn

Linux Kernel

The root component of the Android System is the Linux Kernel. It is the foundational piece that enables all of Android’s functionality.

The Linux Kernel is a battle-tested piece of software that has been used in developing operating systems for devices of wide range, from supercomputers to small gadgets. It has limited processing abilities like small networked gadgets for the Internet of Things (IoT).

The Linux Kernel can be tweaked to meet the device specifications to make it possible for manufacturers to make Android devices with different capabilities to match user experience.

With regards to Android, the Kernel is responsible for many foundational functionalities including but not limited to these:

  1. Device drivers
  2. Memory Management
  3. Process Management

Let’s expand on some of the functionality:

Java API Framework

Toàn bộ tập hợp tính năng của Hệ điều hành Android có sẵn cho bạn thông qua các API được viết bằng ngôn ngữ Java. Các API này tạo thành các khối xây dựng mà bạn cần để tạo ứng dụng Android bằng cách đơn giản hóa việc sử dụng lại các thành phần (components) và dịch vụ (services) hệ thống mô-đun, cốt lõi, bao gồm những nội dung sau:

  • View System đa đạng và có thể mở rộng, bạn có thể sử dụng để xây dựng giao diện người dùng (UI) của ứng dụng. Bao gồm lists, grids, text boxes, buttons,… và thậm chí cả trình duyệt web có thể nhúng (embeddable web browser)
  • Resource Manager, cung cấp quyền truy cập vào các tài nguyên không phải mã ( non-code resources) như các chuỗi string, graphic, và các file layout
  • Notification Manager cho phép tất cả các ứng dụng hiển thị cảnh báo tùy chỉnh trên thanh trạng thái
  • Activity Manager quản lý vòng đời của ứng dụng và cung cấp ngăn xếp điều hướng chung
  • Content Providers cho phép ứng dụng truy cập dữ liệu từ các ứng dụng khác, chẳng hạn như ứng dụng Danh bạ hoặc chia sẻ dữ liệu của riêng họ

Các Developer có toàn quyền truy cập vào các framework API giống nhau mà các ứng dụng hệ thống Android sử dụng.

Getting started with Retrofit | android studio | java
Getting started with Retrofit | android studio | java

Java API framework

The entire feature-set of the Android OS is available to you through APIs written in the Java language. These APIs form the building blocks you need to create Android apps by simplifying the reuse of core, modular system components and services, which include the following:

  • A rich and extensible view system you can use to build an app’s UI, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser
  • A resource manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and layout files
  • A notification manager that enables all apps to display custom alerts in the status bar
  • An activity manager that manages the lifecycle of apps and provides a common navigation back stack
  • Content providers that enable apps to access data from other apps, such as the Contacts app, or to share their own data

Developers have full access to the same framework APIs that Android system apps use.

Các framework java phổ biến

Spring

Spring framework

Spring là một framework Java rất nhẹ, có thể sử dụng cho hầu hết mọi loại dự án Java. Đây là một khung mô-đun mà bạn có thể sử dụng cho bất kỳ cấp hoặc lớp nào của dự án. Điều làm cho nó nổi bật hơn, thực tế là bạn có thể sử dụng nó để làm việc trên không chỉ một phần của dự án mà còn toàn bộ dự án.

Nếu bạn làm việc trong kiến trúc MVC chắc chắn Spring sẽ lọt vào mắt xanh của bạn. Framework này cũng có các tính năng bảo mật vô cùng tốt, điều này làm cho các quy trình như xác thực, xác minh và xác nhận trở nên dễ dàng hơn nhiều trong bất kỳ dự án nào. Các công ty nổi tiếng như Netflix hay eBay đều sử dụng Spring.

Dưới đây là một số lợi thế của việc sử dụng Framework Spring:

  • Nhẹ và không yêu cầu máy chủ web bên cạnh bộ chứa mặc định.
  • Hỗ trợ khả năng tương thích ngược.
  • Có khả năng tương thích cấu hình kiểu chú thích (annotation).

2, Hibernate

Hibernate Framework

Hibernate là một cơ chế cho phép người lập trình thao tác với database một cách hoàn toàn tự nhiên thông qua các đối tượng. Nếu bạn luôn phải làm việc với các cơ sở dữ liệu quan hệ, framework ORM Hibernate có thể dễ dàng trở thành công cụ chủ lực của bạn.

Framework Java này giúp đơn giản hoá việc tạo ra dữ liệu, thao tác dữ liệu và truy cập dữ liệu.. Các công ty như IBM và Dell đã sử dụng Hibernate cho các ứng dụng web của họ.

Các ưu điểm khi sử dụng Hibernate bao gồm:

  • Có khả năng thao tác dữ liệu mạnh với ít mã hóa.
  • Hoàn hảo cho các dự án loại OOP đòi hỏi năng suất cao và tính di động cùng một lúc.
  • Hibernate là nguồn mở. Do vậy lập trình viên có thể khai thác framework Java này một cách miễn phí.

>>> Xem thêm: Khóa học java Android

3, JSF

JSF Framework

JavaServer Faces (JSF) là công nghệ tiêu chuẩn Java để xây dựng các giao diện web hướng sự kiện, dựa trên thành phần. Giống như JavaServer Pages (JSP), JSF cho phép truy cập vào dữ liệu và logic phía máy chủ. Không giống như JSP, về cơ bản là một trang HTML thấm nhuần các khả năng phía máy chủ, JSF là một tài liệu XML đại diện cho các thành phần chính thức trong một cây logic.

Các thành phần JSF được hỗ trợ bởi các đối tượng Java, độc lập với HTML và có đầy đủ các khả năng Java, bao gồm truy cập các API và cơ sở dữ liệu từ xa. Framework Java ổn định này được Oracle xây dựng đi kèm với môi trường MVC dựa trên thành phần để tạo ra những giao diện đẹp mặt cho các ứng dụng Java.

Các ưu điểm tiêu biểu của việc sử dụng JSF :

  • JSF là một phần không thể tách rời của Java 2E. Framework này có sự hỗ trợ rất lớn cho các lập trình viên.
  • Các nhà phát triển back end có rất nhiều công cụ front end để sử dụng mà không cần quá nhiều code khi sử dụng JSF.

GWT (Bộ công cụ web của Google)

GWT Framework

Như những gì có thể mong đợi từ một sản phẩm của Google, GWT là nguồn mở. Lý do chính khiến các lập trình viên bắt đầu với GWT là vì sự dễ dàng trong việc tạo ra các thiết kế giao diện người dùng đẹp mà không yêu cầu nhiều kiến thức về ngôn ngữ kịch bản frontend. Về cơ bản, nó có khả năng biến việc lập trình trong Java trở thành một việc dễ dàng hơn. Bên cạnh đó, bộ phát triển phần mềm GWT cung cấp các API Java và các vật dụng cho việc xây dựng các ứng dụng được biên dịch sang JavaScript sau.

Các ứng dụng web như Blogger, Google Analytics và Google Adsense đều được xây dựng bằng Java với khung GWT. Nó có đầy đủ tính năng và được hỗ trợ bởi một nhóm lớn các nhà phát triển dành riêng cho framework, làm cho nó hoàn hảo hơn trong việc phát triển các ứng dụng.

Dưới đây là một số lợi thế của việc sử dụng GWT:

  • Thu hẹp khoảng cách giữa phát triển back-end và front-end.
  • Khả năng tương thích trình duyệt chéo hữu ích khi triển khai các ứng dụng trực tuyến.
  • API Google dễ thực hiện hơn bằng cách sử dụng GWT

Struts (Phiên bản mới hơn)

Struts framework

Struts là một framework cấp doanh nghiệp do Apache điều hành và vô cùng hoàn hảo cho các nhà phát triển web. Nó có nhiều tính năng và có hai phiên bản: Struts 1 và 2. Được sử dụng rộng rãi nhất là Struts2, về cơ bản đây là phiên bản mở rộng và nâng cấp so với phiên bản đầu tiên với mọi thứ đi kèm với các công cụ khung web OpenSymphony.

Điều đó có nghĩa là bạn có thể áp dụng các công nghệ mới như Ruby và các framework JavaScript mới để mở rộng chức năng của các ứng dụng Java của bạn.

Các ưu điểm thú vị của việc sử dụng khung công tác Java Struts bao gồm:

  • Struts phù hợp với các framework liền mạch khác.
  • Không phải ghi đè hoặc thực hiện các lớp học hành động vì nó đã được thay thế.
  • Bạn sẽ giảm đáng thời gian cần thiết, cho phép bạn tạo ra nhiều ứng dụng nhanh chóng

Kết luận:

Trên đây là top 5 các Framework Java được sử dụng phổ biến nhất trong năm 2020, tùy theo mục đích sử dụng, các lập trình viên có thể chọn một framework phù hợp để tối ưu hóa việc lập trình của mình.

There are quite a number of operating systems available today. However, among all, the Android operating system is on top of the list as the most widely used OS in the world. And not by a small margin, as there are over 2.5 billion active users of the Android operating system. The implication is that the Android platform is important for anyone intending to launch a successful mobile application.

However, creating Android apps may be difficult, especially for newcomers. That’s where Android development frameworks come in. They are an organized body of pre-written code that can be utilized to accelerate and streamline the development process.

According to statistics from Statcounter, over 70% of the overall market share of mobile operating systems belongs to Android.

There are different frameworks for Android app development available. And each of them has its unique features, advantages, and disadvantages. Yet, whatever one you select needs to be the right framework. This is crucial to the success of your project as an Android developer or someone with a plan to create an Android app.

The finest Android frameworks that will enable you to create reliable and effective apps in 2023 are what we examine in this article. This review will help you pick the best framework for Android app development that meets all your requirements.

How Much Memory for 1,000,000 Threads in 7 Languages | Go, Rust, C#, Elixir, Java, Node, Python
How Much Memory for 1,000,000 Threads in 7 Languages | Go, Rust, C#, Elixir, Java, Node, Python

What is an Application Framework?

An app development framework, as you might have figured, is a unique tool that offers pre-made templates, components, and structures that can be utilized to create apps. Frameworks for Android app development offer pre-written code that may be reused, which may accelerate the development process. Its main goal is to create the architecture for different types of applications by offering standardized procedures and guidelines. Additionally, it can help increase the quality of applications. Some of the various software architectures it focuses on include:

  • The native OS-specific apps for different operating systems
  • Hybrid applications (multi-platform apps)
  • Web applications (accessible through a web browser)

Android development frameworks have a component structure and customizable front-end interface. It enables easy designing of an app and code reuse, with the base code centralized in one location. In summary, Android frameworks help programmers create apps faster.

The creation of numerous Android frameworks that can standardize and accelerate deliverability to Android devices is thus based on the popularity of this mobile operating system. Flutter Framework, React Native Framework, Ionic Framework, Xamarin Framework, NativeScript Framework, and Cordova Framework are some of the well-known Android frameworks that developers may now select from.

Focusing on the most admired Android frameworks is undoubtedly necessary to find the best resources for creating high-quality Android OS applications. Let’s now look more closely at the best frameworks for Android app development to see which ones will enable you to produce worthy Google Play apps.

System apps

Android comes with a set of core apps for email, SMS messaging, calendars, internet browsing, contacts, and more. Apps included with the platform have no special status among the apps the user chooses to install. So, a third-party app can become the user’s default web browser, SMS messenger, or even the default keyboard. Some exceptions apply, such as the system’s Settings app.

The system apps function both as apps for users and to provide key capabilities that developers can access from their own app. For example, if you want your app to deliver SMS messages, you don’t need to build that functionality yourself. You can instead invoke whichever SMS app is already installed to deliver a message to the recipient you specify.

Kiến trúc của Android (Android Platform Architecture)

Android là một hệ điều hành mã nguồn mở, được xây dựng dựa trên Linux và có thể sử dụng cho nhiều thiết bị khác nhau.Bao gồm các thành phần chính theo sơ đồ bên dưới:

Weather App in Android Studio - Android Studio Project - API Integration, Location Services
Weather App in Android Studio – Android Studio Project – API Integration, Location Services

Device Drivers

The Linux Kernel houses the drivers needed to make it possible for the operating system to work with different hardware components. These drivers provide a standard interface with which hardware components sourced from different manufacturers can work with.

This makes it possible for device manufacturers to source different components, such as Bluetooth components, Wifi components, camera components. As long as the manufacturers match the Android standard specifications, integration is seamless.

1) USB Driver

Linux also provides Android with a means to interface with USB devices. Modern devices come with different USB ports, including USB 2.0 and new versions of USB, including USB-C. These drivers make it possible to use the USB port to charge, transfer live data such as logs from the Android devices, and interact with the android file system.

2) Bluetooth Driver

Linux Kernel provides support for interfacing with Bluetooth hardware components. It provides a way to read and write data received from supported bluetooth radio frequencies. It also provides a set of facilities for Android to configure Bluetooth.

3) Wifi Driver

The Linux kernel provides drivers to integrate the WiFi networking hardware components. WiFi components embedded in mobile devices enable Android devices to connect to wifi networks. The driver enables the wifi components to broadcast wifi networks and create hotspots.

4) Display Driver

Android makes it possible to interface with display components. For most devices, the interface component is an LCD touch-screen. It allows support for configuring and drawing pixels.

5) Audio Driver

Android devices commonly come with hardware components for audio input and output. Audio drivers in the kernel enable the Android system to use audio received from these components and also produce audio output.

6) Power Manager

Most Android devices are used while disconnected from power outlets. They thus depend on batteries to power them for a large chunk of their usage. Linux Kernel comes with a power management system that’s configurable to meet the needs of the devices using it.

Android OS uses the power manager to make other components on the device power-aware. It does this by broadcasting various power-related states. These states are Standby, Sleep, and Low-Battery. On Android, the power manager is tweaked to default to sleep mode to ensure maximum battery life.

The Power Manager exposes means for applications to react to different power modes. Applications can also change their behavior to match the current power state of the device.

An application can also request to change the default power policies. Applications can achieve the desired functionality, such as keeping the hardware components active. An example is keeping the screen active when reading a book to ensure a user isn’t interrupted. Another example is keeping the audio components turned on when listening to music in the background.

7) Flash Memory

Most Android devices use flash memory as a means of storage. Flash memory is fast and takes less space making it perfect for small devices. Linux kernel provides a means for Android devices to read and write into flash memory. It provides a means to partition the memory in such a way that the OS and other applications can easily and efficiently share the memory resource.

8) Binder

Android hosts many applications and system components that each run in their processes. In most cases, these processes should be isolated from each other to prevent interference and data corruption. Yet, there are instances that we wish to pass data from one process to another.

The Linux kernel enables data sharing functionality by providing binder drivers. Binder drivers enable inter-process communication, IPC. Using IPC processes can discover other processes and share information.

Android runtime

For devices running Android version 5.0 (API level 21) or higher, each app
runs in its own process and with its own instance of the Android Runtime
(ART). ART is written to run multiple virtual machines on low-memory
devices by executing Dalvik Executable
format (DEX) files, a bytecode format designed specifically for
Android that’s optimized for a minimal memory footprint. Build tools, such
as

d8

, compile
Java sources into DEX bytecode, which can run on the Android platform.

Some of the major features of ART include the following:

  • Ahead-of-time (AOT) and just-in-time (JIT) compilation
  • Optimized garbage collection (GC)
  • On Android 9 (API level 28) and higher, conversion of an app package’s DEX files to more compact machine code
  • Better debugging support, including a dedicated sampling profiler, detailed diagnostic exceptions and crash reporting, and the ability to set watchpoints to monitor specific fields

Prior to Android version 5.0 (API level 21), Dalvik was the Android runtime. If your app runs well on ART, then it can work on Dalvik as well, but the reverse might not be true.

Android also includes a set of core runtime libraries that provide most of the functionality of the Java programming language, including some Java 8 language features, that the Java API framework uses.

Simple Login App | Android Studio | 2024
Simple Login App | Android Studio | 2024

Core Libraries

In this segment, we will discuss some of the core libraries that are present in the Android operating system.

2) MediaFramework

Android also natively supports popular media codecs, making it easy for apps created on the Android platform to use/play multimedia components out of the box.

3) SQLite

Android also has an SQLite database that enables applications to have very fast native database functionality without the need for third party libraries.

4) Freetype

Android comes with a preinstalled fast and flexible font engine. This makes it possible for application developers to style components of their application and deliver a rich experience that communicates the developer’s intent.

5) OpenGL

Android also comes with the OpenGL graphics system. It’s a C library that helps Android use hardware components in the real-time rendering of 2D and 3D graphics.

6) SSL

Android also comes with an inbuilt security layer to enable secure communication between applications on Android and other devices such as servers, other mobile devices, routers 6.

7) SGL

Android comes with a graphics library implemented in low-level code that efficiently renders graphics for the android platform. It works with the higher-level components of the Android framework Android graphics pipeline.

8) Libc

The core of Android contains libraries written in C and C++, which are low-level languages meant for embedded use that help in maximizing performance. Libc provides a means to expose low-level system functionalities such as Threads, Sockets, IO, and the like to these libraries.

9) Webkit

This is an open-source Browser engine used as a basis to build browsers. The default Android browser before version 4.4 KitKat uses it for rendering web pages. It enables application developers to render web components in the view-system by using WebView. This enables apps to integrate web components into their functionality.

10) Surface Manager

The surface manager is responsible for ensuring the smooth rendering of application screens. It does this by composing 2D and 3D graphics for rendering. It further enables this by doing off-screen buffering.

Android Runtime

Đối với các thiết bị chạy Android phiên bản 5.0 (API cấp 21) trở lên, mỗi ứng dụng chạy trong quy trình riêng và với phiên bản Android Runtime (ART) riêng. ART được viết để chạy nhiều máy ảo trên các thiết bị có bộ nhớ thấp bằng cách thực thi các tệp DEX, một định dạng bytecode được thiết kế đặc biệt cho Android được tối ưu hóa cho bộ nhớ tối thiểu. Xây dựng các công cụ, chẳng hạn như d8, biên dịch các mã nguồn Java thành DEX bytecode, có thể chạy trên nền tảng Android.

Một số tính năng chính của ART bao gồm:

  • Biên dịch trước thời gian (AOT) và đúng lúc (JIT)
  • Thu gom rác tối ưu hóa (GC)
  • Trên Android 9 (API cấp 28) trở lên, chuyển đổi tệp định dạng Dalvik Executable (DEX) của gói ứng dụng thành mã máy nhỏ gọn hơn.
  • Hỗ trợ debug tốt hơn, bao gồm trình biên dịch lấy mẫu chuyên dụng (profiler), các ngoại lệ chẩn đoán chi tiết và báo cáo sự cố cũng như khả năng thiết lập các điểm theo dõi để giám sát các trường cụ thể

Trước phiên bản Android 5.0 (API cấp 21), Dalvik là Android runtime. Nếu ứng dụng của bạn chạy tốt trên ART, thì ứng dụng đó cũng sẽ hoạt động trên Dalvik, nhưng điều ngược lại có thể không đúng.

Android cũng bao gồm một bộ thư viện thời gian chạy cốt lõi cung cấp hầu hết các chức năng của ngôn ngữ lập trình Java, bao gồm một số tính năng của ngôn ngữ Java 8, mà framework API Java sử dụng.

[2024] Java Spring Boot Microservices with k8s, Docker, AWS | Monolithic to Microservices [PART 1]
[2024] Java Spring Boot Microservices with k8s, Docker, AWS | Monolithic to Microservices [PART 1]

Linux kernel

The foundation of the Android platform is the Linux kernel. For example, the Android Runtime (ART) relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionalities such as threading and low-level memory management.

Using a Linux kernel lets Android take advantage of key security features and lets device manufacturers develop hardware drivers for a well-known kernel.

Application Framework

The Android OS exposes the underlying libraries and features of the Android device that are using a Java API. This is what is known as the Android framework. The framework exposes a safe and uniform means to utilize Android device resources.

1) Activity Manager

Applications use the Android activity component for presenting an entry point to the app. Android Activities are the components that house the user interface that app users interact with. As end-users interact with the Android device, they start, stop, and jump back and forth across many applications. Each navigation event triggers activation and deactivation of many activities in respective applications.

The Android ActivityManager is responsible for predictable and consistent behavior during application transitions. The ActivityManager provides a slot for app creators to have their apps react when the Android OS performs global actions. Applications can listen to events such as device rotation, app destruction due to memory shortage, an app being shifted out of focus, and so on.

Some examples of the way applications can react to these transitions include pausing activity in a game, stopping music playing during a phone call.

2) Window Manager

Android can determine screen information to determine the requirements needed to create windows for applications. Windows are the slots where we can view our app user interface. Android uses the Window manager to provide this information to the apps and the system as they run so that they can adapt to the mode the device is running on.

The Window Manager helps in delivering a customized app experience. Apps can fill the complete screen for an immersive experience or share the screen with other apps. Android enables this by allowing multi-windows for each app.

3) Location Manager

Most Android devices are equipped with GPS devices that can get user location using satellite information to which can go all the way to meters precision. Programmers can prompt for location permission from the users, deliver location, and aware experiences.

Android is also able to utilize wireless technologies to further enrich location details and increase coverage when devices are enclosed spaces. Android provides these features under the umbrella of the Location-Manager.

4) Telephony Manager

Most Android devices serve a primary role in telephony. Android uses TelephoneManager to combine hardware and software components to deliver telephony features. The hardware components include external parts such as the sim card, and device parts such as the microphone, camera, and speakers. The software components include native components such as dial pad, phone book, ringtone profiles. Using the TelephoneManager, a developer can extend or fine-tune the default calling functionality.

5) Resource Manager

Android app usually come with more than just code. They also have other resources such as icons, audio and video files, animations, text files, and the like. Android helps in making sure that there is efficient, responsive access to these resources. It also ensures that the right resources are delivered to the end-users. For example, the proper language text files are used when populating fields in the apps.

6) View System

Android also provides a means to easily create common visual components needed for app interaction. These components include widgets like buttons, image holders such as ImageView, components to display a list of items such as ListView, and many more. The components are premade but are also customizable to fit app developer needs and branding.

7) Notification Manager

The Notification Manager is responsible for informing Android users of application events. It does this by giving users visual, audio or vibration signals or a combination of them when an event occurs. These events have external and internal triggers. Some examples of internal triggers are low-battery status events that trigger a notification to show low battery. Another example is user-specified events like an alarm. Some examples of external triggers include new messages or new wifi networks detected.

Android provides a means for programmers and end-users to fine-tune the notifications system. This can help to guarantee they can send and receive notification events in a means that best suits them and their current environments.

8) Package Manager

Android also provides access to information about installed applications. Android keeps track of application information such as installation and uninstallation events, permissions the app requests, and resource utilization such as memory consumption.

This information can enable developers to make their applications to activate or deactivate functionality depending on new features presented by companion apps.

9) Content Provider

Android has a standardized way to share data between applications on the device using the content provider. Developers can use the content provider to expose data to other applications. For example, they can make the app data searchable from external search applications. Android itself exposes data such as calendar data, contact data, and the like using the same system.

Java Streams Tutorial
Java Streams Tutorial

Native C/C++ Libraries

Nhiều thành phần và dịch vụ hệ thống cốt lõi của Android, chẳng hạn như ART và HAL, được xây dựng từ mã gốc (native code) yêu cầu thư viện gốc được viết bằng C và C ++. Nền tảng Android cung cấp các API khung Java để hiển thị chức năng của một số thư viện gốc này cho các ứng dụng. Ví dụ: bạn có thể truy cập OpenGL ES thông qua API Java OpenGL của Android framework để thêm hỗ trợ vẽ và thao tác đồ họa 2D và 3D trong ứng dụng của bạn.

Nếu bạn đang phát triển một ứng dụng yêu cầu mã C hoặc C ++, bạn có thể sử dụng Android NDK để truy cập trực tiếp vào một số thư viện nền tảng gốc (native platform libraries) này từ mã gốc của mình.

What’s next?

  • If you’re new to AOSP, and want to get started with development, refer to the Get started section.
  • If you want to learn more about a specific layer of AOSP, click the section’s name in the left navigation and begin with the overview for that section.

Apps are the main way a user interacts with their android device, they are essentially programs that run on Android and are composed of one or more interactive screens.

System apps are apps the system has recognized as the default apps to perform common tasks like email, texting, camera operation, etc.

The Java API Framework is a set of software libraries and utilities essential for Android Development. This is the layer of the stack that developers will be interacting with and includes things like:

Each application runs on its own instance of the Android runtime (ART). ART is a managed runtime that runs application code.

Think of an Android Runtime as an isolated container where each app lives and carries out its processes. It’s kind of like the house where each app lives.

The hardware abstraction layer (HAL) consists of a number of library modules that manage access to the hardware of an Android device. This hardware includes the camera, audio, Bluetooth connectivity, and various internal sensors. Applications interact with HAL via the Java API framework.

The Linux kernel sits at the base of the Android stack. It handles threading, low-level memory management, security, and drivers. Essentially it’s the core brain of the operation. Linux is an operating system that can be run on desktop computers as well as phones. It’s the most complicated and most highly developed part of the Android stack and is the main reason something like Android is able to exist.

XML stands for Extensible Markup Language and is a markup language (not a programming language). Essentially it’s a format for encoding data in a hierarchical (tree like) manner, and is intended to be readable by both humans and computers.

An XML document is composed of a series of Elements that are organized in a hierarchical fashion through the use of Tags. A tag is a special syntax that indicates where an element should be placed in a document.

Container tags actually consist of two separate tags, a start tag, and an end tag. Each individual tag starts and ends with less than and greater than signs and has the name of the Element in the middle. End tags are differentiated with a forward slash at the beginning of the element name.

Container tags can have other tags nested inside of them, which results in a tree-like structure of elements nested inside one another.

Single tags, unlike container tags are self closing, meaning we only have one tag. These look similar to start tags but have a forward slash after the Element name.

Android applications can consist of hundreds or thousands of files worth of code, video, audio and images. These need to be packed in a way that can be understood by the Android device, which is where Gradle comes in. The Gradle tool in Android studio will package everything together in a compressed file called and APK, which can then be distributed and run on Android devices.

Android Studio also includes a suite of emulators which developers can use to test their apps. It comes pre-packaged with emulators for many of the most popular Android devices in the world.

How to Make a News App | REST API | Android Project
How to Make a News App | REST API | Android Project

Process Management

Every app in Android runs in a process. The Kernel is also responsible for managing processes. This means it’s responsible for creating, pausing, stopping, shutting, or killing down processes.

The Kernel enables various functionalities such as running multiple processes at the same time, communicating between processes, running processes in the background, and so on.

As each process requires its own memory space to function correctly, the Kernel ensures that memory spaces allotted for each process are protected from other processes. It also ensures that resources like RAM allotted to processes are freed up when the processes are shut down.

The Linux Kernel is also responsible for distributing work to the processors present in the device. This makes it possible to maximize the performance of devices with multiple cores as different apps will have processes being run on a different core.

The Linux Kernel does more task under the hood including enforcing security.

Hardware abstraction layer (HAL)

The hardware abstraction layer (HAL) provides standard interfaces that expose device hardware capabilities to the higher-level Java API framework. The HAL consists of multiple library modules, each of which implements an interface for a specific type of hardware component, such as the camera or Bluetooth module. When a framework API makes a call to access device hardware, the Android system loads the library module for that hardware component.

API calling using Retrofit(GET) in Android Studio.
API calling using Retrofit(GET) in Android Studio.

Summary:

  • Android architecture is organized in layers.
  • Each layer solves a unique set of problems.
  • End-users interact with apps on the Application layer
  • Application developers develop apps to be used on the Application layer. They do so using tools and abstractions provided by the Application Framework.
  • Android Framework layer simplifies access to low-level components by creating an API over native libraries.
  • Android Runtime and Core-Libraries use low-level languages together with optimizations for mobile devices. This ensures code written by application developers runs smoothly despite Android device constraints.
  • At the bottom of the Android software stack is the Linux kernel. It interfaces with the hardware components common in Android devices.

System Apps

Android đi kèm với nhiều ứng dụng cốt lõi được cài đặt sẵn cho email, nhắn tin, lịch, v.v … Tuy nhiên, bất kỳ ứng dụng tương ứng nào khác có thể được tạo thành một ứng dụng mặc định thay cho các lõi này ứng dụng. Các ứng dụng hệ thống (System Apps) này có thể được gọi từ ứng dụng của riêng bạn. Ví dụ, nếu bạn muốn cung cấp chức năng nhắn tin cho một ứng dụng, bạn không cần để tự xây dựng chức năng đó. Bạn có thể gọi ứng dụng hệ thống cho nhắn tin từ trong ứng dụng của bạn để gửi tin nhắn.

Bài viết được tham khảo từ https://developer.android.com/guide/platform

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Tìm hiểu các mô hình Kiến trúc trong phát triển ứng dụng trong android.
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Android Architecture
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Android Framework
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The Android Open System Platform (AOSP) is publicly available and modifiable Android source code. Anyone can download and modify AOSP for their device. AOSP provides a complete and fully functional implementation of the Android mobile platform.

There are two levels of compatibility for devices implementing AOSP: AOSP compatibility and Android compatibility. An AOSP-compatible device must conform to the list of requirements in the Compatibility Definition Document (CDD). An Android-compatible device must conform to the list of requirements in the CDD and Vendor Software Requirements (VSR) and tests such as those in the Vendor Test Suite (VTS) and Compatibility Test Suite (CTS). For further information on Android compatibility, refer to the Android compatibility program.

Build your first API in 10 minutes | API tutorial | FastAPI tutorial | Build API from scratch
Build your first API in 10 minutes | API tutorial | FastAPI tutorial | Build API from scratch

Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)

Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) cung cấp các giao diện tiêu chuẩn thể hiện các khả năng của phần cứng thiết bị với framework API Java cấp cao hơn (higher-level Java API framework). HAL bao gồm nhiều mô-đun thư viện, mỗi mô-đun thực hiện một giao diện cho một loại thành phần phần cứng cụ thể, chẳng hạn như mô-đun Camera hoặc Bluetooth. Khi một framework API thực hiện cuộc gọi để truy cập phần cứng của thiết bị, hệ thống Android sẽ tải mô-đun thư viện cho thành phần phần cứng đó.

AOSP architecture

The software stack for AOSP contains the following layers:

Figure 1. AOSP software stack architecture.

Following is a list of definitions for terms used in Figure 1:

Android app
An app created solely using the Android API. Google Play Store is widely used to find and download Android apps, though there are many other alternatives. In some cases, a device manufacturer might want to preinstall an Android app to support the core functionality of the device. If you’re interested in developing Android apps, refer to developers.android.com
Privileged app
An app created using a combination of the Android and system APIs. These apps must be preinstalled as privileged apps on a device.
Device manufacturer app
An app created using a combination of the Android API, system API, and direct access to the Android framework implementation. Because a device manufacturer might directly access unstable APIs within the Android framework, these apps must be preinstalled on the device and can be updated only when the device’s system software is updated.
System API
The System API represents Android APIs available only to partners and OEMs for inclusion in bundled applications. These APIs are marked as @SystemApi in the source code.
Android API
The Android API is the publicly available API for third-party Android app developers. For information on the Android API, refer to Android API reference.
Android framework
A group of Java classes, interfaces, and other precompiled code upon which apps are built. Portions of the framework are publicly accessible through the use of the Android API. Other portions of the framework are available only to OEMs through the use of the system APIs. Android framework code runs inside an app’s process.
System services
System services are modular, focused components such as

system_server

, SurfaceFlinger, and MediaService. Functionality exposed by Android framework API communicates with system services to access the underlying hardware.
Android runtime (ART)
A Java runtime environment provided by AOSP. ART performs the translation of the app’s bytecode into processor-specific instructions that are executed by the device’s runtime environment.
Hardware abstraction layer (HAL)
A HAL is an abstraction layer with a standard interface for hardware vendors to implement. HALs allow Android to be agnostic about lower-level driver implementations. Using a HAL lets you implement functionality without affecting or modifying the higher level system. For further information, see the HAL overview.
Native daemons and libraries

Native daemons in this layer include


init

,

healthd

,

logd

, and

storaged

. These daemons interact directly with the kernel or other interfaces and don’t depend on a userspace-based HAL implementation.

Native libraries in this layer include


libc

,

liblog

,

libutils

,

libbinder

, and

libselinux

. These Native libraries interact directly with the kernel or other interfaces and don’t depend on a userspace-based HAL implementation.

Kernel

The kernel is the central part of any operating system and talks to the underlying hardware on a device. Where possible, the AOSP kernel is split into hardware-agnostic modules and vendor-specific modules. For a description, including definitions, of AOSP kernel components, refer to the Kernel overview.

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Java Full Course for free ☕

Wrapping Up

With this overview, it’s clear choosing the best Android framework for your specific needs and requirements can be a tricky task. But you don’t have to let this overwhelm you. If you are seeking the ideal framework for your project or Android frameworks that ensure high performance and support cross-platform usage, Intellectsoft will help you! We provide top-quality Android app development services. Rest assured, we will deliver high-performance apps and programs with cross-platform features.

Backed up with over 15 years of knowledge, Intellectsoft is a front-runner in the mobile app development sphere. Our experienced developers are experts in identifying the latest Android frameworks that would satisfy your peculiar needs.

Allow us to aid you in deciding the best framework for Android app development to employ for your future software product. Our team of experts will ensure you have an app that ticks all the boxes of your project needs. We guarantee that your app will have all the functions needed to reach the aims of your project.

Android Architecture: Application Layers, Framework, Component

Android operating system’s initial release was in the year 2008. Even at its start, the team behind the operating system built it on top of the shoulders of giants. Beyond the user interface that the Android OS presents at the surface level, it is made up of multiple layers. These layers include custom code and open-source technologies that have been under continuous development for decades.

Android has been developed through massive collaborative efforts and investments by many companies. The main company behind android development is Google. Other companies include device manufacturers such as Samsung, LG; processor manufacturers such as Intel and ARM, but to name a few.

When we talk about Android architecture, we mean how the Android system has been designed, segmented into layers, and built up to work as a system. Building such a complex system requires careful structuring to ensure all the components work together cohesively. Its architecture ensures that the many components function as a whole without crashing.

In this tutorial, you will learn:

  • Layers
  • Android Application
  • Application Framework
  • Android Runtime and Core/Native Libraries
  • Core Libraries
  • Linux Kernel
  • Device Drivers
  • Memory Management
  • Process Management

Keywords searched by users: java api framework android

Android Architecture - Geeksforgeeks
Android Architecture – Geeksforgeeks
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8 Best Android Frameworks You Must Know In 2024 – Interviewbit
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Android Architecture | Android Software Stack – Javatpoint
Multimedia Framework In Android - Geeksforgeeks
Multimedia Framework In Android – Geeksforgeeks
The Android Platform: The 2022 Android Developer Roadmap - Part 1
The Android Platform: The 2022 Android Developer Roadmap – Part 1
Android Architecture - Detailed Explanation - Interviewbit
Android Architecture – Detailed Explanation – Interviewbit
Understanding Android Application Framework - Youtube
Understanding Android Application Framework – Youtube
What Is Java Api, Its Advantages And Need For It [Updated] | Simplilearn
What Is Java Api, Its Advantages And Need For It [Updated] | Simplilearn

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