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Express In Mean Stack | References[Edit]

Mean Stack Tutorial - 7 - Connecting with Express server

Key Takeaways:

  1. MEAN Stack Development is the process of building web applications using MongoDB, Express.js, Angular.js, and Node.js.
  2. If you do not yet have a product, MEAN Stack Development may not be a top priority, but it’s still important to be aware of the technologies and tools used in web development.
  3. If you do have a product, using the MEAN stack can help streamline your development process, reduce development time, and improve the performance of your web application.
  4. Examples of MEAN Stack Development include building a simple Todo App or a more complex e-commerce platform.

MEAN Stack Limitations

While MEAN does offer several advantages, it may not always be the right choice for certain applications. There are a few drawbacks to keep in mind.

Limited Support for Relational Databases

Relational or SQL databases store data in tables using a rigid schema to ensure data integrity and structure. However, MongoDB is a NoSQL database that stores data in the more flexible BSON format.

Developers wishing to use relational databases with the MEAN stack must integrate additional tools. However, it makes the application more complex, which can detract from its maintainability. Therefore, MEAN may not be ideal for applications that require highly structured data with optimal integrity.

Performance Issues

Unlike how it handles other tasks, Node.js executes JavaScript code one task at a time. While this single-threaded model has its advantages, it can also lead to bottlenecks when dealing with CPU-intensive tasks.

Steep Learning Curve

Despite their supportive communities and resources, Angular and MongoDB can be difficult for new developers to learn.

Angular is a complex and verbose framework with advanced features that require significant time and effort to comprehend. Developers may also need to contend with its continuous evolution and regular updates while they navigate the framework.

Meanwhile, developers with more experience using traditional SQL databases may find it challenging to adapt to MongoDB’s flexibility. Because MongoDB doesn’t require a strict schema, developers may need to learn new techniques and syntax for optimizing indexes and managing transactions.

Mean Stack Tutorial - 7 - Connecting with Express server
Mean Stack Tutorial – 7 – Connecting with Express server

What is MEAN stack development?

Definition

MEAN Stack Development refers to the process of building web applications using four key technologies: MongoDB (a NoSQL database), Express.js (a web application framework), Angular.js (a front-end JavaScript framework), and Node.js (a runtime environment for executing JavaScript on the server-side).

Analogy

Imagine building a house. MongoDB is like the foundation, storing all the data and information. Express.js is the framework of the house, providing structure and organization. Angular.js is the interior design, making the house look visually appealing and user-friendly. Finally, Node.js is the plumbing and electrical system, allowing the different parts of the house to communicate and function together.

In other words

MEAN Stack Development is like constructing a well-designed, efficient, and visually appealing house using a specific set of tools and technologies.

Next Steps

This article has touched on what MEAN Stack is, the Components of MEAN Stack, and the benefits of MEAN Stack. To learn more about Node JS and Express, you can Get into Simplilearn’s Node JS certification training. You will learn the fundamentals of Express.js, Node Packet Manager (NPM), NPM Vet, REST, shrink-wrap, Express.js with MongoDB, and SQLite CRUD operations in this certification training course. This Node JS and Express Js workshop focuses on the key ideas and gives participants hands-on practice creating an HTTP server.

Should you have questions about this “A Perfect Guide for All You Need to Know About MEAN Stack” tutorial, please feel free to write to us in the comments below. Our expert team will resolve them and will be happy to answer them earliest.

MEAN (solution stack)

MEAN (MongoDB, Express.js, AngularJS (or Angular), and Node.js)[1] is a source-available JavaScript software stack for building dynamic web sites and web applications.[2] A variation known as MERN replaces Angular with React.js front-end,[3][4] and another named MEVN use Vue.js as front-end.

Because all components of the MEAN stack support programs that are written in JavaScript, MEAN applications can be written in one language for both server-side and client-side execution environments.

Though often compared directly to other popular web development stacks such as the LAMP stack, the components of the MEAN stack are higher-level including a web application presentation layer and not including an operating system layer.[5]

The acronym MEAN was coined by Valeri Karpov.[6] He introduced the term in a 2013 blog post and the logo concept, initially created by Austin Anderson for the original MEAN stack LinkedIn group, is an assembly of the first letter of each component of the MEAN acronym.[7]

Build app using Angular 16, Node Express JS and Mongo DB (MEAN Stack)
Build app using Angular 16, Node Express JS and Mongo DB (MEAN Stack)

Components Of MEAN Stack

The MEAN stack consists of four components. Let’s go through each of them individually.

MongoDB

  • MongoDB, a NoSQL database management system, is the first component of MEAN Stack, where data is stored as documents with key-value pairs resembling JSON objects.
  • Users can create databases, schemas, and tables using MongoDB.
  • It provides the Mongo shell with a JS interface for changing, querying, and removing records.

Express JS

  • ExpressJS is the second Stack component of MEAN.
  • A NodeJS framework called ExpressJS makes it easier to write backend code.
  • You can avoid making additional Node modules because ExpressJS provides various middleware for maintaining the code’s accuracy.
  • Express is used to develop web and mobile applications, providing a wide range of functionalities.
  • A layer added to Node js which helps manage servers and routes.
  • A single page, multipage, or hybrid web application can be created with Express JS.

Angular JS

  • Angular is the third component of the MEAN stack which is a front-end framework.
  • For building dynamic user interfaces, Angular is a well-liked front-end framework.
  • Its key differentiating characteristic is the capability to interact with the online application without refreshing the page, which reduces site traffic and enhances performance.
  • To develop dynamic, interactive online experiences more effectively than constructing them yourself with static HTML and JavaScript, Angular.js enables you to expand your HTML tags with metadata (or jQuery).
  • Angular has all of the features you’d anticipate from a front-end JavaScript framework, such as form validation, localization, and back-end service connectivity.

Node JS

  • NodeJS is the last element of the MEAN stack. It is a JS runtime environment, allowing JavaScript code to be executed outside a browser.
  • Node.js is a cross-platform runtime environment. It is a server environment that is open source and a Javascript runtime environment, not a programming language or framework, for server-side code execution.
  • Several other backend services, including web applications and mobile apps, are frequently created and developed using it.
  • It is an open-source platform for ASCII text files that anybody can use. It supports several different operating systems, including Windows, Mac, Linux, Unix, and others.
  • Users can access incredibly quick and ascendable services thanks to Node.js.
  • It is simple to use once you get going, and you can even use it for agile development and prototyping.

Examples of MEAN stack development

So you know what MEAN Stack Development is, by definition. You know if you should care about it or not depending on your situation as a business/company/product. To dig in deeper, we will walk through some tools and processes so we can make sure you really have a solid grasp on MEAN Stack Development.

Todo App

A simple Todo App is a common example of a web application built using the MEAN stack. In this example, MongoDB stores the user’s tasks, Express.js handles the API requests, Angular.js displays the tasks in a user-friendly interface, and Node.js runs the server-side code.

E-commerce Platform

MEAN Stack Development can also be used to build more complex applications, such as an e-commerce platform. In this case, MongoDB would store product information, customer data, and order history. Express.js would manage the API for product listings, shopping carts, and user accounts. Angular.js would provide a responsive and interactive user interface, and Node.js would handle server-side tasks like payment processing and order fulfillment.

Angular - Node - MongoDB & Express (MEAN) Tutorial for Beginners - Getting Started
Angular – Node – MongoDB & Express (MEAN) Tutorial for Beginners – Getting Started

Why is MEAN stack development important?

It’s one thing to know what MEAN Stack Development is, but that is worthless if you don’t know why you should know what a code repository is in the first place. Let’s break down the importance of this tech term based on two high-level categories. We’ll walk through an explanation as well as provide a score, 1-10, that shows you how much you should care about MEAN Stack Development.

Pre-Product: 1/10

If you don’t have a product yet, MEAN Stack Development may not be a top priority for you. However, it’s still important to be aware of the technologies and tools used in web development, as they can help you make informed decisions when it comes time to build your product.

Live Product: 5/10

If you have a live product, MEAN Stack Development becomes more important. Using the MEAN stack can help streamline your development process, reduce development time, and improve the performance of your web application. Having a solid understanding of these technologies can help you make better decisions when it comes to optimizing and scaling your product.

Use Cases for the MEAN Stack

Despite these minor weaknesses, the MEAN stack is ideal for developing a wide range of applications.

Single-Page Applications

MEAN is great for building single-page applications (SPAs), such as ecommerce applications, content management systems (CMSs), and social networking applications.

SPAs must supply dynamic and (often) personalized updates without requiring end users to reload the page. Angular simplifies this dynamic view creation through its component-based architecture, templating, and two-way data binding. You can customize your UI to your users’ preferences and update it in real time based on their interactions with the page.

Furthermore, you can combine Angular with Express.js to enhance the user experience. While Angular dynamically renders the UI, Express.js provides the routing and middleware to handle client requests and communicate with the database or external services.

Real-Time Web Applications

The MEAN stack is also ideal for building real-time web applications, such as gaming sites, chat applications, and collaboration tools. Node.js supports real-time data processing through its asynchronous I/O model. It also provides web sockets to enable seamless data transfer between the client and server without needing multiple HTTP requests.

This persistent connection enables applications to deliver live messages and updates. When a user sends a message in a chat application, and the server immediately broadcasts it to the intended recipient, they experience the all-but-invisible benefit of the persistent connection.

Data-Intensive Applications

MEAN is also well-equipped to handle the demands of data-intensive processes that drive applications like ecommerce platforms and finance software.

Node.js is an excellent option for processing and managing large amounts of data without impacting performance. Meanwhile, MongoDB is exceptional at handling large and complex data sets. It can also make read-and-write operations to the database, which are crucial functions for applications that must store, update, and retrieve data quickly.

Nodejs Angular with Mongodb (MEAN) Crud App Part 1
Nodejs Angular with Mongodb (MEAN) Crud App Part 1

External links[edit]

  • meanjs.org is a fork of mean.io. It uses a tool called ‘Yeoman’ to generate Angular CRUD, routes, controllers, views, and services.
  • Trendnologies Bigdata Course
  • MEAN Stack User Registration and Login Tutorial
  • Spark Databox MEAN Stack Online Course
  • Understanding MERN and MEAN Stack
  • FAQs About Hiring MERN Stack Developers

The MEAN stack is an open-source collection of JavaScript technologies that’s gained significant popularity. It makes it easy to build complex, full-stack web applications and is an excellent option for front and backend development.

This article explores the MEAN stack’s components and use cases, highlighting why it’s an intelligent choice for your full-stack applications.

Advantages of the MEAN Stack

The MEAN stack makes it easy to build full-stack, real-time web applications. Let’s go over some of its most compelling benefits.

Full-Stack JavaScript

MEAN’s primary advantage is that it lets you build full-stack applications using a single language, allowing you to reuse code and keep it structurally and syntactically consistent. Reusability can significantly accelerate the development process so you can focus on more complex tasks.

Scalability

MEAN is also exceptionally scalable, making it a popular choice for building large-scale web applications. The asynchronous architecture of Node.js enables easy horizontal scaling, and MongoDB supports sharding. You can distribute your data storage across numerous servers and add more servers to your clusters as demand increases.

Community and Ecosystem

As an open-source tech stack, MEAN has a thriving developer community contributing to its ongoing development and maintenance. This culture of collaboration also gives it a well-rounded support system and a low barrier to entry, with many learning resources to help you get started.

In addition, MEAN has a wealth of libraries, frameworks, and other tools within the Node.js package manager (npm). This rich ecosystem enables you to integrate features easily into your application without building them from scratch.

Hotel Booking App with MEAN ( MongoDB, Express, Angular, Node) stack
Hotel Booking App with MEAN ( MongoDB, Express, Angular, Node) stack

Further reading[edit]

  • Haviv, Amos Q. (2014). MEAN Web Development: Master real-time web application development using a mean combination of MongoDB, Express, Angular JS, and Node.js. Birmingham, UK: Packt Publishing. ISBN 978-1783983285.
  • Holmes, Simon (2019). Getting MEAN with Mongo, Express, Angular, and Node, Second Edition. Shelter Island, NY: Manning Publishing. ISBN 9781617294754.
  • Holmes, Simon (2015). Getting MEAN with Mongo, Express, AngularJs, and Node. Shelter Island, NY: Manning Publishing. ISBN 9781617292033.
  • Dickey, Jeff (2014). Write Modern Web Apps with the MEAN Stack: Mongo, Express, AngularJS, and Node.js (Develop and Design). San Francisco, CA: Peachpit Press. ISBN 978-0133930153.

References[edit]

  1. ^ “us-en_cloud_learn_mean-stack-explained”. www.ibm.com. IBM Cloud Education. 2019-05-09. Archived from the original on 2020-05-14. Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  2. ^ Dickey, Jeff (2014-09-24). Write Modern Web Apps with the MEAN Stack: Mongo, Express, AngularJS, and Node.js. Peachpit Press. ISBN 9780133962376.
  3. ^ “MERN Stack Explained”. Archived from the original on 2023-04-27.
  4. ^ “How to Use MERN Stack: A Complete Guide”. Archived from the original on 2023-03-21.
  5. ^ “LAMP vs MEAN, Deciding the right stack for your startup”. www.linkedin.com. Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  6. ^ “The MEAN Stack: MongoDB, ExpressJS, Angular and Node.js”. Tumblr. Apr 30, 2013.
  7. ^ “Mean Stack”. LinkedIn.
  8. ^ “The most popular database for modern apps”. MongoDB. Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  9. ^ “Express – Node.js web application framework”. expressjs.com. Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  10. ^ II, Thomas Hunter (2019-03-28). “Why should I use a Reverse Proxy if Node.js is Production-Ready?”. Medium. Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  11. ^ “Features – Server Side Rendering | Next.js”. nexts.org. Retrieved 2020-02-16.
  12. ^ “JavaScript Everywhere and the Three Amigos (WebSphere: Into the wild BLUE yonder!)”. 2013-11-14. Archived from the original on 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2020-02-16.
MEAN Stack CRUD Operations - Beginners Tutorial
MEAN Stack CRUD Operations – Beginners Tutorial

What is Express.js?

Express.js is a free and open-source web application framework for Node.js. It is used for designing and building web applications quickly and easily. Web applications are web apps that you can run on a web browser. Since Express.js only requires javascript, it becomes easier for programmers and developers to build web applications and API without any effort.

Express.js is a framework of Node.js which means that most of the code is already written for programmers to work with. You can build a single page, multi-page, or hybrid web applications using Express.js. Express.js is lightweight and helps to organize web applications on the server-side into a more organized MVC architecture.

It is important to learn javascript and HTML to be able to use Express.js. Express.js makes it easier to manage web applications.It is a part of a javascript based technology called MEAN software stack which stands for MongoDB, ExpressJS, AngularJS, and Node.js. Express.js is the backend part of MEAN and manages routing, sessions, HTTP requests, error handling, etc.

The JavaScript library of Express.js helps the programmers to build efficient and fast web apps. Express.js enhances the functionality of the node.js. In fact, if you don’t use Express.js, then you have to do a lot of complex programming to build an efficient API. It has made programming in node.js effortless and has given many additional features.

Why should you use Express.js?

Express.js supports JavaScript which is a widely used language that is very easy to learn and is also supported everywhere. Therefore, if you already know JavaScript, then it will be really easy for you to do programming using Express.js.

With the help of Express.js, you can easily build different kinds of web applications in a short period of time. Express.js provides a simple routing for requests made by clients. It also provides a middleware that is responsible for making decisions to give the correct responses for the requests made by the client

Without Express.js, you have to write your own code to build a routing component which is a time consuming and tedious task. Express.js offers simplicity, flexibility, efficiency, minimalism, and scalability to the programmers. It also has the advantage of powerful performance as it is a framework of Node.js.

Node.js carries all the executions really fast with the help of Event Loop that avoids any kind of inefficiency. The powerful performance of Node.js and the ease of coding using Express.js are the most popular features loved by web application developers. Since Express.js is written in Javascript, you can build websites, web applications, or even mobile apps using it.

Need of Express.js

The most valuable asset in any business is time. On top of that many programmers have the pressure to build efficient web apps in a short period of time. But coding web apps and testing them requires time. This is where Express.js becomes a lifesaver for programmers.

Express.js can reduce the coding time by half and still help us build efficient web applications. It not only reduces the time but it also reduces the effort required to build web apps with the help of its different features.

Another reason to use Express.js is JavaScript. Express.js allows even beginners to enter the field of web application development because it supports JavaScript. Javascript is very easy to learn for anyone even if they do not have any prior knowledge of any other languages. Therefore, Express.js allows young talent to enter the field of web app development and achieve success.

Node.js is event-driven and thus has the ability to handle thousands of client requests at the same time which is not possible with PHP.

In today’s world, real-time web apps and services are increasing in popularity. Node.js is designed exclusively to support real web applications. The most common example of a real-time web app would be live-chat. It involves thousands of users and real-time interaction that can be supported easily by Node.js.

Another asset of any business is money. It is important to use money efficiently to maximize profits. Since Express.js is an open-source and free web application that provides many great features, there is no reason left to not use it.

Features of Express.js

Faster Server side development

Express.js provides many commonly used features of Node.js in the form of functions that can be readily used anywhere in the program. This removes the need to code for several hours and thus saves time.

Middleware

Middleware is a part of the program that has access to the database, client request, and the other middlewares. It is mainly responsible for the systematic organization of different functions of Express.js.

Routing

ExpressJS provides a highly advanced routing mechanism which helps to preserve the state of the webpage with the help of their URLs.

Templating

ExpressJS provides templating engines that allow the developers to build dynamic content on the web pages by building HTML templates on the server-side.

Debugging

Debugging is crucial for the successful development of web applications. ExpressJS makes debugging easier by providing a debugging mechanism that has the ability to pinpoint the exact part of the web application which has bugs.

Difference Between Express.js and Node.js and Angular JS

S.No. Node.js Express.js Angular.js
It is used for building both the frontend and backend of a web application. It is a node.js framework that is used for building the backend of a web application. It is a framework for building the frontend of a web application.
It was developed on Google’s V8 JavaScript engine as a cross-platform runtime environment. It is a framework for Node.js It was built as a web app development framework by Google.
It was written using different programming languages like JavaScript, C, and C++. It was written using JavaScript. It was written using JavaScript.
It is not a web framework. It is a web framework. It is a web framework.
Developers need to install NodeJS on their computer system to use it. Developers need to install ExpressJS along with NodeJS to use it. There is no need to install AngularJS on their computer system to use it.
Used for developing server-side and networking applications. Used for building server-side applications on NodeJS. Used for building single page and client-side web apps
It is suited for small size projects. It is suited for small side projects. It is suited for highly interactive web projects.
It is useful for building faster and scalable web apps and also real-time collaborative editing apps. It is useful for building web apps quickly on NodeJS. It is useful for building real-time applications like messaging apps.
It can be used both on the client-side and server-side. It can be used on the server-side. It can be used on the client-side.
10 It is compatible with all major types of operating systems. It is compatible with all types of operating systems that are compatible with NodeJS It is compatible with every known browser in the industry.
11 It supports MVC architecture. It supports MVC architecture. It supports MVC architecture.
12 It provides many features for developers to build a web application. It provides routing components and supports middleware to make web app development easier. It allows programmers to use HTML as a template language and provides various components to build a web app by extending HTML syntax.
13 It provides many features to the programmer to write database queries. Programmers can write database queries on ExpressJS because it is a framework of NodeJS. It does not provide any feature to the programmer to write database queries.
14 It supports other languages like TypeScript, CoffeeScript, and Ruby. It supports JavaScript. It supports other languages like Dart, TypeScript, etc.
15 It is used by PayPal, Walmart, LinkedIn, Uber, etc. It is used by PayPal, IBM, Fox Sports, etc. It is used by Snapchat, Amazon, Google, etc

Advantages Of Express.js

Express.js is a popular tool because of the following advantages:

  • It is easy to learn because many front end users are already familiar with JavaScript. So they don’t have to learn a new language in order to learn Express.js
  • This makes backend development much easier for front end developers using Express.js
  • A web developer can use JavaScript as a single language for both front end and back end development. The developer does not need to learn or use any other language for server-side development.
  • The JavaScript Code is interpreted through Google V8 JavaScript Engine by Node.js. Therefore, the code is implemented quickly and easily in an effective manner.
  • The Express.js framework is very simple to customize and use as per the needs.
  • Express.js provides a flexible middleware module. It is mainly useful for doing extra tasks on response and request.

The MEAN stack is a JavaScript-based framework for developing web applications. MEAN is named after MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node, the four key technologies that make up the layers of the stack.

There are variations to the MEAN stack such as MERN (replacing Angular.js with React.js) and MEVN (using Vue.js). The MEAN stack is one of the most popular technology concepts for building web applications.

The MEAN architecture is designed to make building web applications in JavaScript and handling JSON incredibly easy.

At the very top of the MEAN stack is Angular.js, the self-styled “JavaScript MVW Framework” (MVW stands for “Model View and Whatever”).

Angular.js allows you to extend your HTML tags with metadata in order to create dynamic, interactive web experiences much more powerfully than, say, building them yourself with static HTML and JavaScript (or jQuery).

Angular has all of the bells and whistles you’d expect from a front-end JavaScript framework, including form validation, localization, and communication with your back-end service.

The next level down is Express.js, running on a Node.js server. Express.js calls itself a “fast, unopinionated, minimalist web framework for Node.js,” and that is indeed exactly what it is.

Express.js has powerful models for URL routing (matching an incoming URL with a server function), and handling HTTP requests and responses. By making XML HTTP requests (XHRs), GETs, or POSTs from your Angular.js front end, you can connect to Express.js functions that power your application.

Those functions, in turn, use MongoDB’s Node.js drivers, either via callbacks or using promises, to access and update data in your MongoDB database.

If your application stores any data (user profiles, content, comments, uploads, events, etc.), then you’re going to want a database that’s just as easy to work with as Angular, Express, and Node.

That’s where MongoDB comes in: JSON documents created in your Angular.js front end can be sent to the Express.js server, where they can be processed and (assuming they’re valid) stored directly in MongoDB for later retrieval.

Again, if you want to easily get the best of MongoDB, you’ll want to look at MongoDB Atlas. This will allow you built-in full database security and cross-cloud scalability with the click of a button. More on that later on this page.

MEAN applications can be used in many ways with a cross-platform write-once approach. While MEAN is particularly suited to real-time applications, particularly those running natively in the cloud and single-page (dynamic) web applications built in Angular.js, it can be used for other use cases such as:

There are many more uses for the MEAN stack, as well.

Since all the components are based on JavaScript and JSON, the integration between the components of the stack is intuitive and straightforward.

Additionally, the E and A of MEAN (Express and Angular) are two of the most popular and well-supported JavaScript frameworks for back-end and front-end development, respectively. Express makes routing and managing HTTP requests and responses super easy, and includes great support for middleware to handle JSON endpoints and form posts. Angular is a powerful tool for building dynamic HTML pages that communicate with a back-end server.

Whether you’re building a high-throughput API, a simple web application, or a microservice, MEAN is the ideal stack for building Node.js applications.

All of the MEAN stack components are open source in nature and therefore allow a generous, free-of-charge opportunity for developers.

JavaScript is a great modern language, but it wasn’t initially designed to build back-end servers. Since the foundation of the MEAN stack is JavaScript, including the back-end server, it might come with concurrency and performance problems at scale due to JavaScript nature.

Additionally, since the development opportunity is so rapid, business and server logic might suffer from poor isolation, making potential spaghetti code and bad practices a reality along the way.

Finally, although there are many guides and tutorials out there, they generally will not include concrete JS coding guidelines appropriate for this stack. Therefore, something that worked really well for one application might surface issues for another.

MEAN follows the traditional three-tier stack pattern, including the display tier (Angular.js), application tier (Express.js and Node.js), and database tier (MongoDB).

If you’re building a JavaScript application, particularly in Node.js, then you should give MEAN a serious look.

MongoDB stores data in a JSON-like format (BSON, a binary JSON extension), the MongoDB Query Language (MQL) is defined in JSON, and its command line interface (CLI) is a JavaScript interpreter. Not only is MongoDB essentially a JavaScript/JSON data store, but it’s full of advanced features like indexing and querying deep into JSON documents, has powerful native Node.js drivers, and is designed for horizontal scale-out. It’s even easier to develop apps in the cloud using MongoDB Atlas, the cloud-native database as a service from the creators of MongoDB.

Whether you’re building a high-throughput API, a simple web application, or a microservice, MEAN is the ideal stack for building Node.js applications.

The MongoDB Node.js driver makes working with MongoDB from inside a Node.js script simple and intuitive for developers — saving developers time and increasing their productivity.

Next, you’ll need a MongoDB database. The easiest way to get started with MongoDB is to create a free cluster in MongoDB Atlas, MongoDB’s fully managed, multi-cloud document database as a service.

Atlas databases are easily deployed and scaled, providing you with a consistent URI to connect. See the official MongoDB documentation on connecting to a cluster.

Along the way, Atlas connections come with built-in username/password and TLS end-to-end encryption by default. Additionally, these connections allow you to utilize advanced MongoDB security features such as certificate/IAM authentication, LDAP, Encryption-at-rest, and Auditing with the click of a button.

Moreover, an Atlas project can utilize the Atlas App Services applications platform to easily integrate many authentication providers such as Google, Facebook, JWT, and custom authentication.

Scaling and managing Atlas is very easy; its biggest benefit is that it supports and secures the MEAN stack’s most valuable layer: the data layer.

We recommend using the MEAN stack with MongoDB Atlas, since Atlas has built-in credentials, a firewall, and end-to-end encryption, which is the best foundation for securing your MongoDB.

Additionally, the MEAN stack has a concrete three-tier separation which, if used with best practices and correct network isolation, should prevent your end users from having access to the business logic and, moreover, to your database layer. Therefore, your application is by default designed to avoid malicious user interaction from putting your application at risk (query injection, code manipulation, port spoofing, etc.).

MEAN Stack is a variation of a full stack in that it has:

Although a MEAN stack developer should focus their expertise on the building blocks specific to MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node, a general full stack developer might need other or more skill sets.

MEAN Stack Tutorial

The mean stack tutorial is designed for the developers who want to design the dynamic website and web application using Mean.js. Our tutorial covers all the components of Mean.js, such as MongoDB, Express.js, Node.js, and Angular.js.

The Mean.js can be considered a collection of various technologies for developing a dynamic website and web application. Mean.js is used for developing a web application where MongoDB is used as a database system, Express.js is used as a back-end web framework, node.js is used as a web server, and Angular.js is used as a front-end framework.

What is MEAN?

Each letter in the word MEAN has some specific meaning. Here, ‘M’ stands for MongoDB, ‘E’ stands for Express, ‘A’ stands for Angular, and ‘N’ stands for Node.js. It is one of the most popular stacks used for developing the full stack application. Let’s understand the basic idea behind the mean stack.

As we can observe in the above figure that there is a front-end app, back-end app and database. The front-end app can be developed using either Angular.js or React.js, and back-end can be developed using Node.js, which is further connected to the MongoDB database. The front-end app and back-end app communicate with each other through the RestAPI. The back-end app exposes the RestAPI endpoints, whereas the front-end app consumes the RestAPI endpoints.

Let’s look at each component of Mean.js one by one.

Node.js

Node.js is an open-source platform and provides a runtime environment for executing the javascript code. It is mainly used for building the back-end application. Since there are two types of apps, such as web apps and mobile apps, where web apps run on the browser and mobile apps run on mobile devices. Both web app and mobile app are the client apps to which the user interacts. These apps require to communicate with the backend services to store the data, send emails, push notifications. Node.js is an ideal platform to build highly scalable, data-intensive, and real-time applications. It can be used for agile development and highly-scalable services. For example, PayPal is a java and spring-based application using Node.js.

Advantages of Node.js

Angular.js

Angular.js is a JavaScript framework that is used to develop web applications. This framework is developed by the Google. Now, the question arises that there are many javascript frameworks available in the market. Why do we prefer angular.js over the other frameworks for developing the web application?.

Advantages of Angular.js

MongoDB

MongoDB is the database used in web development. It is a NoSQL database, and a NoSQL database can be defined as a non-relational and document-oriented database management system. As it is a document-oriented database management system, so it stores the data in the form of documents. The SQL databases use SQL query language to query the database, whereas the MongoDB is a NoSQL database that uses BSON language to query the database. JSON is a text-based format, but it is inefficient in terms of speed and space. In order to make MongoDB efficient in terms of space and speed, BSON was invented. BSON basically stores the JSON format in the binary form that optimizes the space, speed, and complexity.

Since the MongoDB is an unstructured schema and the data is not related to each other then the question arises ‘why do we need to use the MongoDB?’. MongoDB is mainly useful for projects which are huge.

Express.js

Express.js is a free and open-source software used as a back-end web application framework. It is commonly used in the popular development stacks like MEAN with a MongoDB database. The Express.js was developed by TJ Holowaychuk.

Advantages of Express.js

Advantages of MeanStack
Prerequisite

MEAN.js is a framework for designing web applications. The user should have knowledge of web development using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript and should have basic knowledge of all the four technologies which are MongoDB, Express.js, Angular.js, and Node.js.

Audience

This tutorial is helpful for both beginners and professionals who want to build a career in web-development or seamlessly learn the precepts of MEAN.js. There are a lot of topics and concepts available that will help you to learn MEAN.js easily.

Problem

We assure you that you will not find any problem with this MEAN Stack tutorial. But if there is any mistake, please post the problem in the contact form.

Next TopicArchitecture of MEAN Stack

I have recently have gotten into AngularJS and I love it. For an upcoming project I am looking to use the MEAN stack (MongoDB, Express, Angular, Node). I’m pretty familiar with Angular and I have a modest understanding of the purposes of MongoDB and Node in the stack. However, I don’t really understand what the purpose of Express.js is. Is it essential to the MEAN stack? What would you compare it to in a traditional MySQL, PHP, javascript app? What does it do that the other three components can’t do?

Also, if someone wants to give their own take on how the four parts of the stack work together, that’d be great.

The MEAN stack is a JavaScript-based framework for developing web applications. MEAN is named after MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node, the four key technologies that make up the layers of the stack.

There are variations to the MEAN stack such as MERN (replacing Angular.js with React.js) and MEVN (using Vue.js). The MEAN stack is one of the most popular technology concepts for building web applications.

The MEAN architecture is designed to make building web applications in JavaScript and handling JSON incredibly easy.

At the very top of the MEAN stack is Angular.js, the self-styled “JavaScript MVW Framework” (MVW stands for “Model View and Whatever”).

Angular.js allows you to extend your HTML tags with metadata in order to create dynamic, interactive web experiences much more powerfully than, say, building them yourself with static HTML and JavaScript (or jQuery).

Angular has all of the bells and whistles you’d expect from a front-end JavaScript framework, including form validation, localization, and communication with your back-end service.

The next level down is Express.js, running on a Node.js server. Express.js calls itself a “fast, unopinionated, minimalist web framework for Node.js,” and that is indeed exactly what it is.

Express.js has powerful models for URL routing (matching an incoming URL with a server function), and handling HTTP requests and responses. By making XML HTTP requests (XHRs), GETs, or POSTs from your Angular.js front end, you can connect to Express.js functions that power your application.

Those functions, in turn, use MongoDB’s Node.js drivers, either via callbacks or using promises, to access and update data in your MongoDB database.

If your application stores any data (user profiles, content, comments, uploads, events, etc.), then you’re going to want a database that’s just as easy to work with as Angular, Express, and Node.

That’s where MongoDB comes in: JSON documents created in your Angular.js front end can be sent to the Express.js server, where they can be processed and (assuming they’re valid) stored directly in MongoDB for later retrieval.

Again, if you want to easily get the best of MongoDB, you’ll want to look at MongoDB Atlas. This will allow you built-in full database security and cross-cloud scalability with the click of a button. More on that later on this page.

MEAN applications can be used in many ways with a cross-platform write-once approach. While MEAN is particularly suited to real-time applications, particularly those running natively in the cloud and single-page (dynamic) web applications built in Angular.js, it can be used for other use cases such as:

There are many more uses for the MEAN stack, as well.

Since all the components are based on JavaScript and JSON, the integration between the components of the stack is intuitive and straightforward.

Additionally, the E and A of MEAN (Express and Angular) are two of the most popular and well-supported JavaScript frameworks for back-end and front-end development, respectively. Express makes routing and managing HTTP requests and responses super easy, and includes great support for middleware to handle JSON endpoints and form posts. Angular is a powerful tool for building dynamic HTML pages that communicate with a back-end server.

Whether you’re building a high-throughput API, a simple web application, or a microservice, MEAN is the ideal stack for building Node.js applications.

All of the MEAN stack components are open source in nature and therefore allow a generous, free-of-charge opportunity for developers.

JavaScript is a great modern language, but it wasn’t initially designed to build back-end servers. Since the foundation of the MEAN stack is JavaScript, including the back-end server, it might come with concurrency and performance problems at scale due to JavaScript nature.

Additionally, since the development opportunity is so rapid, business and server logic might suffer from poor isolation, making potential spaghetti code and bad practices a reality along the way.

Finally, although there are many guides and tutorials out there, they generally will not include concrete JS coding guidelines appropriate for this stack. Therefore, something that worked really well for one application might surface issues for another.

MEAN follows the traditional three-tier stack pattern, including the display tier (Angular.js), application tier (Express.js and Node.js), and database tier (MongoDB).

If you’re building a JavaScript application, particularly in Node.js, then you should give MEAN a serious look.

MongoDB stores data in a JSON-like format (BSON, a binary JSON extension), the MongoDB Query Language (MQL) is defined in JSON, and its command line interface (CLI) is a JavaScript interpreter. Not only is MongoDB essentially a JavaScript/JSON data store, but it’s full of advanced features like indexing and querying deep into JSON documents, has powerful native Node.js drivers, and is designed for horizontal scale-out. It’s even easier to develop apps in the cloud using MongoDB Atlas, the cloud-native database as a service from the creators of MongoDB.

Whether you’re building a high-throughput API, a simple web application, or a microservice, MEAN is the ideal stack for building Node.js applications.

The MongoDB Node.js driver makes working with MongoDB from inside a Node.js script simple and intuitive for developers — saving developers time and increasing their productivity.

Next, you’ll need a MongoDB database. The easiest way to get started with MongoDB is to create a free cluster in MongoDB Atlas, MongoDB’s fully managed, multi-cloud document database as a service.

Atlas databases are easily deployed and scaled, providing you with a consistent URI to connect. See the official MongoDB documentation on connecting to a cluster.

Along the way, Atlas connections come with built-in username/password and TLS end-to-end encryption by default. Additionally, these connections allow you to utilize advanced MongoDB security features such as certificate/IAM authentication, LDAP, Encryption-at-rest, and Auditing with the click of a button.

Moreover, an Atlas project can utilize the Atlas App Services applications platform to easily integrate many authentication providers such as Google, Facebook, JWT, and custom authentication.

Scaling and managing Atlas is very easy; its biggest benefit is that it supports and secures the MEAN stack’s most valuable layer: the data layer.

We recommend using the MEAN stack with MongoDB Atlas, since Atlas has built-in credentials, a firewall, and end-to-end encryption, which is the best foundation for securing your MongoDB.

Additionally, the MEAN stack has a concrete three-tier separation which, if used with best practices and correct network isolation, should prevent your end users from having access to the business logic and, moreover, to your database layer. Therefore, your application is by default designed to avoid malicious user interaction from putting your application at risk (query injection, code manipulation, port spoofing, etc.).

MEAN Stack is a variation of a full stack in that it has:

Although a MEAN stack developer should focus their expertise on the building blocks specific to MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node, a general full stack developer might need other or more skill sets.

Adding the Express Framework in MEAN Stack

In our previous section, we added the node backend in our application. As it was discussed that writing all the code just with nodejs is very cumbersome or difficult, and for this, we need an express framework. In this section, we will add the express framework for nodejs to make nodejs development easier. These are the following steps used to add express framework:

1) We will install express with npm by running the following command.

2) We will now add the express app and all the files that belong to it in the back-end folder. In the backend folder, we will create an app.js file.

3) This app.js file will hold the express app, which is still a nodejs server-side app, to take advantage of these express features. We will import the express in the same way as we have imported the http package in the server.js file.

The express is not package shipping with node, but the package we just installed with npm.

4) Now, we will use the express and one way of using it to quickly add one such route that handles a request for a single path only. We will do this by creating an express app. We will create a constant app because we won’t change it and then execute that express package. We will execute express as a function, and it will return us an express app.

Now, we can use this app. An express app is just a big chain of middlewares, which we apply to the incoming requests.

5) So, we will add a middleware with the app and then use the use keyword in the following way:

The use function uses a new middleware on our app and on the incoming request.

6) The middleware function takes a function that is executed for an incoming request, and that function takes three arguments, i.e., request, response, and next function. The request and response arguments are the same as nodejs, and the next function is used for one special purpose. If we execute this function, then the request will actually continue its journey like this:

In the above code, the first middleware is useless. In this middleware, the next function plays an important role because it calls the next middleware, and in the next middleware, we will use the send function of response to send back the response.

7) We will then wire up this very simple express app with our server, where we are listening to our incoming requests. We will use the app as a listener, so we need to export this app. Here, we will not use the export keyword to export the app. We will have a module object with an exports object, and we register what we want to export in this exports object as a value like this:

8) Now, we will import it in our server.js file. We will add a new constant app and pass our app’s path in the required function like this:

9) Now, we will use that app as a listener for incoming requests. We will pass the app to our createServer function.

10) One other thing is important before passing app to our createServer function, we need to tell express on which port we are working. For this, we need to set the port key using the set function in the following way:

Now, if we restart our node server, our browser and console will look like:

In the next section, we will improve our server.js file by simply adding error handling methods in it.

Next TopicAdding Error handling in server.js

Mean Stack is a Web Development framework. Its functional components are MongoDB, ExpressJS, AngularJS, and NodeJS. The specific functions of each of these elements while creating a web application utilizing the MEAN stack are listed below:

  • MongoDB – Document-oriented database
  • Express(.js) – NodeJS web framework
  • Angular(.js) – a client-side JavaScript framework
  • Node(.js) – JavaScript back-end runtime environment

The MEAN stack is the first Stack that springs to mind when discussing full-stack JavaScript. Mean is a collection of open-source software tools that combines MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node.js. Large organizations, including Google, Accenture, Sisense, and PayPal, are adopting the MEAN methodology. Let’s quickly go through each of its parts.

Building web apps in JavaScript and working with JSON are made tremendously simple by the MEAN architecture.

Software components[edit]

MongoDB[edit]

MongoDB is a NoSQL database program that uses JSON-like BSON (binary JSON) documents with optional schemas.

The role of the database in the MEAN stack is very commonly filled by MongoDB because its use of JSON-like documents for interacting with data as opposed to the row/column model allows it to integrate well with the other (JavaScript-based) components of the stack.[8]

Express.js[edit]

Express.js (also referred to as Express) is a modular web application framework package for Node.js.[9]

While Express is capable of acting as an internet-facing web server, even supporting SSL/TLS out of the box, it is often used in conjunction with a reverse proxy such as NGINX or Apache for performance reasons.[10]

Angular and alternatives[edit]

Typically data is fetched using Ajax techniques and rendered in the browser on the client-side by a client-side application framework, however as the stack is commonly entirely JavaScript-based, in some implementations of the stack, server-side rendering where the rendering of the initial page can be offloaded to a server is used so that the initial data can be prefetched before it is loaded in the user’s browser.[11]

Node.js[edit]

Node.js is the application runtime that the MEAN stack runs on.

The use of Node.js, which is said to represent a “JavaScript Everywhere” paradigm,[12] is integral to the MEAN stack which relies on that concept.

Express JS Full Course
Express JS Full Course

Summary

The MEAN stack is a powerful solution for building robust full-stack applications. It allows you to use a single language to develop the frontend with Angular and the backend using Node.js. MongoDB helps you handle complex data, and Node.js establishes an asynchronous runtime environment for enhanced performance and responsiveness.

From SPAs to chat applications to e-commerce platforms, MEAN lets you build highly responsive and flexible applications that can scale to meet traffic and data demands. It also has a large community of active users and numerous libraries and tools to help you get started.

With Kinsta, you can easily deploy MEAN stack applications, providing a Platform as a Service to ship your application without needing to manage infrastructure. You can deploy changes to your application at every push to your Git repository.

Furthermore, includes developer tools like custom deployment from a Dockerfile and staging environments to help you perform advanced tasks and ensure that your application always works as expected. Try out the MEAN stack, then deploy your applications with Kinsta.

Benefits of Using MEAN Stack

  • MEAN applications can be utilized in several ways, with a cross-platform write-once approach.
  • MEAN is well suited to real-time applications operating natively in the cloud and single-page (dynamic) web apps developed in Angular.js. Still, it may also be utilized for other use cases.
  • It’s time to examine the benefits of Mean Stack now that you have a better grasp of its constituent parts (MongoDB, Express.Js, Angular.Js, and Node.Js).

Let’s see the benefits of using MEAN Stack:

Open Source:

  • The MEAN stack is made up of free, open-source technology at every tier. Consequently, throughout the development process, developers can use libraries and repositories that are open to the public.
  • The stack being updated often is one advantage of open-source technology. To obtain information, exchange ideas, and discover answers to problems they might encounter, developers might also reach out to create communities.

Transition Between Client and Server is Very Easy:

  • JavaScript is the only programming language used to create the MEAN Stack.
  • Web applications are only written in one language, making it simple for developers to transition between the client and server.
  • They can quickly deploy web applications on a server without needing to utilize a stand-alone server.

Cost-Friendly:

  • We’ve already emphasized how advantageous it is for companies that MEAN is free.
  • One programming language is all that developers need to be proficient in to build efficiently using the tech stack.
  • Companies that want to use the MEAN Stack might also concentrate heavily on hiring JavaScript specialists.

High Performance and Speed:

  • When time is limited, MEAN is particularly helpful. Developers don’t have to build Modules from scratch.
  • They can instead rely on the Node.js directory of module libraries. Additionally, you won’t need to look for mistakes.
  • The MEAN stack’s components are open-source and free to use. As a result, license disputes won’t occur.
  • It is free for use by anyone. So there are many ways for developers to create web applications.

Flexibility :

  • The MEAN stack’s components are open-source and free to use.
  • As a result, license disputes won’t occur. It is free for use by anyone. So there are many ways for developers to create web applications.

Learn to build network applications quickly and efficiently using JavaScript with the Node.js Training. Click to enroll now!

How To Create Full Stack E-Commerce Website Using React JS, MongoDB, Express & Node JS 2024
How To Create Full Stack E-Commerce Website Using React JS, MongoDB, Express & Node JS 2024

A relatively new stack, MEAN stands for MongoDB, Express.js, AngularJS, and Node.js. MEAN is an end-to-end JavaScript stack largely used for cloud-ready applications. Understanding why you might use it, identifying examples of when to employ it, and diving deeper into the individual components can help you maximize the value of MEAN for software development.

When building an application from scratch, employing a consistent, standardized software stack is vital. Creating your backend with a set of tools designed to work together reduces development time and streamlines resources.

However, the stack field is getting crowded. From LAMP to Ruby on Rails, there are a number of options. Each stack has its benefits and downsides and is geared for different projects. There’s no one-size-fits-all stack for development.

MEAN is an open source web stack that is mainly used to create cloud-hosted applications. MEAN stack applications are flexible, scalable, and extensible, making them the perfect candidate for cloud hosting. The stack includes its own web server so it can be deployed easily, and the database can be scaled on demand to accommodate temporary usage spikes. A MEAN application enters the world optimized to take advantage of all the cost savings and performance improvements of the cloud.

JavaScript has long been a popular language for front-end web development—it’s flexible, dynamic, and easy to use. But it has been an option only for backend and database development for a few years, allowing developers to create applications using end-to-end JavaScript. Because every part of MEAN uses the same language, you can streamline your development teams. MEAN removes the need to hire different specialists to develop each part of an application. Instead, you can use a single pool of JavaScript developers to work adaptively, where and when needed. Standardizing on JavaScript also provides an opportunity to reuse code across the entire application, reducing unnecessary reinvention.

While the MEAN stack isn’t perfect for every application, there are many uses where it excels. It’s a strong choice for developing cloud-native applications because of its scalability and its ability to manage concurrent users. The AngularJS frontend framework also makes it ideal for developing single-page applications (SPAs) that serve all information and functionality on a single page. Here are a few examples for using MEAN:

MongoDBMongoDB is an open source, NoSQL database designed for cloud applications. It uses object-oriented organization instead of a relational model.

In the MEAN stack, MongoDB stores the application’s data. Because both the application and the database use JavaScript, there’s no need to translate the object as it journeys from the application to the database and back. The application can push and pull objects between the back end and the database without missing a beat.

MongoDB is touted for its scalability in both storage and performance. You can add fields to the database without reloading the entire table, and MongoDB is well known for its ability to manage large amounts of data without compromising on data access. With just a few clicks, you can expand the resources available to your database, making it perfect for applications with occasional periods of increased activity.

For a deeper dive into MongoDB, see “MongoDB: An Essential Guide.”

ExpressExpress is a web application framework for Node.js. It balances ease of use and a full feature set.

Forming the backend of the MEAN stack, Express handles all the interactions between the frontend and the database, ensuring a smooth transfer of data to the end user. It’s designed to be used with Node.js and so continues the consistent use of JavaScript throughout the stack.

Express is minimalist—it’s designed to efficiently handle processes without cluttering your application. But don’t confuse minimalist with featureless. Express offers excellent error handling and templating functionality to aid your development.

Express can also protect you from yourself because it uses the CommonJS module standard to prevent inadvertent overwriting of variables within the shared namespace. You can’t accidentally redefine a variable that you previously created. This enforcement of JavaScript closures can help prevent a time-consuming and costly error.

AngularJSAngularJS—Google’s JavaScript frontend framework—isn’t the only frontend framework in use, but it’s exceedingly popular. It is effectively the default for frontend JavaScript development. If you’re developing a web application in JavaScript, you’re using AngularJS.

The MEAN stack includes AngularJS to help developers build the user-facing side of the application. Because the backend, frontend and database are all built on JavaScript, there’s a smooth flow of information between all parts of your application.

AngularJS didn’t become the most popular JavaScript frontend framework by mistake. Its ability to simultaneously develop for desktop and mobile use, its well-tuned performance and its easy-to-use templates make it the ideal front end to build cloud-native applications.

Node.jsNode.js is an open source JavaScript framework that uses asynchronous events to process multiple connections simultaneously. It is an ideal framework for a cloud-based application, as it can effortlessly scale requests on demand. You’re likely to find Node.js behind most well-known web presences.

Node.js is the backbone of the MEAN stack. Express is purpose-built to work on top of Node.js, and AngularJS connects seamlessly to Node.js for fast data serving. Node.js comes complete with an integrated web server, making it easy to deploy your MongoDB database and application to the cloud.

The greatest strength of Node.js is its scalability. Cloud applications are best when they can respond quickly to usage spikes. What good is virtually unlimited processing power if it’s only available after your users time out? By expanding your resources as they’re needed, you’re able to serve more users while the framework’s single-thread architecture allows the application to effectively provide a smooth user experience across numerous connections. Node.js can support as many as a million simultaneous connections.

Remember, Node.js works best with many low-resource requests as opposed to resource-intensive requests. While a single thread protects against process deadlocks, it’s not immune to a large process freezing the system for all clients.

IBM Cloud is a leader in cloud-native app development and a trusted partner to build your enterprise apps quickly on an open, secure and integrated platform.

IBM Cloud Infrastructure as a Service is the infrastructure for smarter business. Find the right solutions for your business requirements.

Discover a security-rich, scalable cloud-native platform for your cloud-native application development. For the past 20 years, IBM has invested significantly in open source code, communities and governance, including the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. With more than 20,000 Kubernetes clusters currently in production and running, IBM Cloud is built to deliver. And IBM Cloud provides one of the highest industry standards for data encryption and adheres to more than 30 compliance programs.

What is Express.js?

Is the MEAN Stack Right for You?

The MEAN acronym comes from its four key components: MongoDB, Express.js, Angular, and Node.js. Each component plays a vital role in building flexible and efficient JavaScript applications.

MongoDB

MongoDB is a popular NoSQL database that stores data as binary JSON (BSON) documents. Its extensive flexibility and scalability make it well-suited for applications that store large and complex data. It’s also cross-platform, allowing you to use a single language across the entire stack.

Express.js

Express.js is a flexible, lightweight framework for the backend development of Node.js applications. It acts as middleware to ensure smooth interaction between the client and the database. It also offers robust routing capabilities and a default error handler.

Angular

Angular is a JavaScript framework for frontend development. It provides features like two-way data binding and dependency injection to enable dynamic views, simplifying how you build complex and interactive user interfaces.

Node.js

Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform JavaScript runtime environment. It enables server-side JavaScript execution and provides an event-driven, non-blocking I/O architecture. Its asynchronous nature means it can handle multiple concurrent requests without blocking the execution of other code.

Tự học NodeJS 2023 - MongoDB Mongoose - JWT | JSON Web Token
Tự học NodeJS 2023 – MongoDB Mongoose – JWT | JSON Web Token

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