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Big Bang Integration Testing | Example Of How To Do Integration Testing

Big Bang Integration Testing Approach (Software Testing - Session 76)

Conclusion

As technology advances, users require applications to deliver excellent efficiency, protection, and dependability. Testing various modules while integrating is an important quality assurance strategy during the software development lifecycle.

It encourages engagement and cohesiveness among diverse software modules. Developers can improve their workflow by detecting and fixing integration-related errors early in development. It can aid in lowering the time and resources spent on problem repair in later phases.

When, combined with other testing methodologies such as unit, functional, and end-to-end testing, it aids in developing a comprehensive testing strategy. This technique guarantees that the finished product matches or even surpasses user expectations. This increases consumer happiness and retention.

What is Integration Testing? (Example)

Big Bang Integration Testing and Test Automation

Compared to manual testing, automating such tests gives various advantages, including time and effort savings. It helps teams to quickly detect potential problems or inaccuracies throughout later development cycles. The testing procedure becomes faster and the accuracy of outcomes improves dramatically with automated tests.

Testsigma is an effective solution for automating online, mobile API, and desktop testing. It offers a comprehensive framework for streamlining and simplifying test automation, allowing for faster input on any problems or errors that may surface during subsequent development cycles. Without programming experience, you can quickly build, execute, and manage automated test cases using Testsigma. This will improve the reliability and speed of your testing efforts, lowering the likelihood of regression mistakes and enhancing the overall quality of your program.

Example of automating your big bang integration tests with Testsigma

For the sake of demonstration, we will demonstrate the example of automating the scenario of integration between cart and the payment gateway using Testsigma, you can follow these steps:

1. Testcase Creation:

a. Open the Testsigma Recorder app, which allows you to record and convert your test steps into NLP-based steps.

b. Start recording the test scenario by clicking the “Record” button.

c. Perform the actions of adding items to the cart, such as selecting products and clicking the “Add to Cart” button.

d. Once the items are added to the cart, click the “Proceed to Checkout” button or any similar button leading to the payment gateway.

e. Complete the necessary actions in the payment gateway, such as entering payment details and submitting the payment.

f. Stop the recording in the Testsigma Recorder app.

2. NLP Conversion:

a. After stopping the recording, the Testsigma Recorder app will convert the recorded steps into NLP-based steps.

b. Review and edit the NLP-based steps if necessary to ensure they accurately represent the actions performed during the recording.

3. Testcase Configuration:

a. Provide a suitable name for the testcase, such as “Cart to Payment Gateway Integration Test.”

b. Assign appropriate tags or labels to categorize the testcase for better organization.

c. specify any prerequisites or test data needed for the testcase.

d. Configure any necessary test environment settings or variables.

4. Assertion and Validation:

a. Add assertions or validations to ensure the expected behavior of the transition from the cart to the payment gateway.

b. For example, you can verify that the payment confirmation page is displayed or check for error messages.

5. Save and Execute:

a. Save the created test case in Testsigma.

b. Run the test case as part of an automated test suite execution with your preferred lab and OS preferences.

c. During execution, Testsigma will perform the recorded steps, interact with the application under test, and validate the expected outcomes.

Following these steps, you can automate the integration test scenario of moving from the cart to the payment gateway using Testsigma’s NLP-based approach. This allows you to create test cases quickly and efficiently, reducing the manual effort required for testing and increasing the reliability of your big bang integration tests.

Big Bang Integration Testing Approach (Software Testing - Session 76)
Big Bang Integration Testing Approach (Software Testing – Session 76)

Workflow Diagram

The above workflow diagram depicts a series of tests and integrations to ensure the functionality and compatibility of the system’s modules. Module A, B, C, D, E, and F are individual units integrated into the system. The process is as follows:

Individual Testing:

Modules A and D undergo separate tests, assessing their functionality and performance.

Group Testing:

Module C, B, F, and E are combined to determine their overall functioning and compatibility, which are then examined as a group.

Sequential Testing:

Modules are evaluated methodically, with Module A being the first to be tested, followed by Module B, Module D. Finally, Module F. This procedure identifies possible faults or module dependencies.

Functionality and Compatibility Testing:

Modules are tested for functionality and interoperability to ensure they perform their intended functions and connect smoothly with the rest of the system.

Integration and System Testing:

Once all individual and group tests have been completed, the modules are incorporated into the system. After that, the complete system is tested to ensure its general functioning and performance.

By following this comprehensive workflow, the system’s modules are methodically assessed. Before being integrated into the larger system, the modules are tested to verify they fulfill the essential requirements of functioning and compatibility.

Once the integration testing phase is completed, automating the corresponding test cases is highly recommended. Test automation helps prevent regressions and ensures that the system functions correctly in the future.

Brief Description of Integration Test Plans

It includes the following attributes:

  • Methods/Approaches to testing (as discussed above).
  • Scopes and Out of Scopes Items of Integration Testing.
  • Roles and Responsibilities.
  • Pre-requisites for Integration testing.
  • Testing environment.
  • Risk and Mitigation Plans.
What is Big Bang Integration Testing Approach? (Software Testing Interview Question #213)
What is Big Bang Integration Testing Approach? (Software Testing Interview Question #213)

What is Integration Testing?

Integration Testing is defined as a type of testing where software modules are integrated logically and tested as a group. A typical software project consists of multiple software modules, coded by different programmers. The purpose of this level of testing is to expose defects in the interaction between these software modules when they are integrated

Integration Testing focuses on checking data communication amongst these modules. Hence it is also termed as ‘I & T’ (Integration and Testing), ‘String Testing’ and sometimes ‘Thread Testing’.

Benefits of Big Bang Integration Testing

Here are some of the benefits of using Big Bang Integration Testing:

The simplest form of integration testing: Big Bang Integration Testing is the simplest form of integration testing, as all modules are integrated at once and tested as a cohesive whole.

Easy to implement: Implementation is straightforward since all the modules are already developed and only need integration.

Bugs can be identified at once: By testing all modules together, errors and bugs can be identified simultaneously, allowing for comprehensive bug detection.

Suitable for small projects: This approach is particularly suitable for small projects where integrating all modules at once is feasible.

Thorough test: Big Bang Integration Testing ensures thorough testing of all module interfaces, promoting robust system behavior.

Potential problems are fixed early: By testing all components simultaneously, potential problems can be identified and addressed early in the development cycle.

Resource-saving: It helps save resources by eliminating the need for separate testing of individual components.

Uncover hidden dependencies: This testing method can reveal hidden dependencies between components that may not be apparent when testing them individually.

Simplify the testing process: Big Bang Integration Testing simplifies the testing process by avoiding the setup and configuration of testing environments for each component.

By leveraging the benefits of Big Bang Integration Testing, software development teams can achieve efficient and comprehensive testing, ensuring their systems’ smooth integration and functionality.

integration testing | part -1/3 |software engineering
integration testing | part -1/3 |software engineering

Entry and Exit Criteria of Integration Testing

Entry and Exit Criteria to Integration testing phase in any software development model

Entry Criteria:

  • Unit Tested Components/Modules
  • All High prioritized bugs fixed and closed
  • All Modules to be code completed and integrated successfully.
  • Integration tests Plan, test case, scenarios to be signed off and documented.
  • Required Test Environment to be set up for Integration testing

Exit Criteria:

  • Successful Testing of Integrated Application.
  • Executed Test Cases are documented
  • All High prioritized bugs fixed and closed
  • Technical documents to be submitted followed by release Notes.

Big Bang Testing Drawbacks

  • it is hard to separate modules when the bug is detected
  • ineffective for large systems
  • high risk to miss some crucial issues while testing the whole system
  • failures occur more frequently because of the simultaneous check of numerous modules
  • a single mistake can influence the results of the whole integration testing
What is Big bang Integration Testing | Software Testing Interview Questions
What is Big bang Integration Testing | Software Testing Interview Questions

Example of how to do Integration Testing

System

The web application for booking flights is designed to provide a hassle-free booking experience. The System Under Test (SUT) comprises various modules. Each module serves a specific role to provide a flawless user experience.

The primary module functions as a user interface, making it easier for users to engage with the application. The interface lets users enter their travel preferences, including date, destination, departure cities, and passenger details.

The searching flight module processes the primary module user input. It searches a flight database or other APIs for available flights that meet the criteria supplied. The module then presents the search findings, which include flight choices, schedules, airlines, and pricing.

The payment module manages the safe and effective processing of payments for the chosen flights. After the user has finished the payment procedure, the confirmation module creates a booking confirmation. This confirmation contains booking references, passenger names, and other crucial details. It can be sent to the user or printed.

Top-Down Approach Example

The top-down testing starts by validating the primary module separately. It means the primary module is tested independently from the subordinate modules without integration.

The lower modules are then integrated and tested one at a time once the main module has passed each of its independent tests. The flight search module is first integrated and tested with the primary module. The payment module is then integrated, tested, and finally, the confirmation module. The process continues until all of the units are integrated and tested.

Bottom-Up Approach Example

The flight search, payment, and confirmation modules are unit tested, ensuring they work as intended. First, the payment and search flight modules are combined and tested. This test verifies that customers can correctly complete all aspects of the booking procedure, including searching for flights and making payments.

Then, search flight and confirmation modules are combined to ensure that consumers receive confirmations of bookings after finishing the payment procedure. The process continues until all the modules are tested.

Big-Bang Approach Example

All modules, including primary, flight search, payment, and confirmation, are combined into a single system under the Big-Bang technique. Several test cases are carried out to evaluate how well the system functions, interacts, and performs.

Types of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are the two types of Big Bang Integration Testing:

Top-down Integration:

Testing begins at the top of the control hierarchy and works its way down, also called a “trickle-down” approach. Higher-level modules are merged first, followed by lower-level modules when necessary. Testing begins at the top and works its way down.

Bottom-up Integration:

Also known as the “bubble-up” approach, which includes integrating lower-level modules first, then higher-level components. It is employed when higher-level modules are not yet ready, or dependencies between modules are unclear. Testing begins at the bottom of the control hierarchy and works its way up.

These two big bang integration testing forms provide greater flexibility in integrating modules based on their readiness and dependencies. Which strategy to execute – top-down or bottom-up – is determined by the individual project needs and the availability of modules at various levels of the system’s control structure.

What is Big Bang Testing?  ||  Integration Testing Strategy || Software Testing Interview QnA
What is Big Bang Testing? || Integration Testing Strategy || Software Testing Interview QnA

What Is Integration Testing

This type of testing examines how various software application modules interact and operate cohesively. The program is divided into more components, known as modules or units. Each module is responsible for a specific task. The real challenge comes when we combine these components to develop the entire software system.

At this stage, it begins to carefully examine the connections between each module to discover any possible problems resulting from a single unit. When the testing is complete, end-to-end testing is conducted to assess the application’s functionality from start to finish. It considers the whole user journey from the initial to the final output to identify issues when various units interact.

Software modules are manually combined, and their relationships are evaluated in manual component testing. Manual testing can be laborious and vulnerable to human error. It can be challenging to cover all integration possibilities in complicated systems adequately. To address these issues, automation is frequently employed.

Continuous integration and continuous delivery practices can aid in this automation. CI/CD pipelines automate the code’s development, testing, and deployment. CI/CD tools automatically run integration tests to verify that the new code integrates well with the existing system. It makes it simpler to address issues before they become more severe by enabling immediate input to developers.

Like other testing procedures, system integration testing involves performing a series of steps to create a flawless application. Here are some vital pointers to note:

  • Creating a testing plan: The testing plan includes the objectives, scope, and approach of the testing phase. This helps testers and stakeholders to understand how the testing will take place.
  • Begin with essential modules: Prioritize the most vital modules when developing test cases. These components are likely to trigger issues if they are not adequately integrated.
  • Use various tools: Numerous tools are available for implementing and running integration tests. Select the tools that best meet your requirements and financial constraints.
  • Perform the tests in various settings: This will ensure that the tests are solid and capture any flaws in multiple environments.
  • Evaluate the results thoroughly: This is a crucial phase in the testing procedure. You can discover any flaws that require repair by carefully evaluating the findings.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Big Bang an incremental testing?

No, Big Bang Integration Testing is not an incremental testing method but rather a method of integrating all components simultaneously, without any incremental phases. This method waits until all components are completed before integrating them all at once.

What is the major disadvantage of the Big Bang approach for integration?

The Big Bang technique for integration is a disadvantage due to its difficulty in isolating and pinpointing particular failures or difficulties. This lack of granularity complicates debugging and troubleshooting, leading to longer resolution times and more work in detecting and addressing issues. Defect identification is also a big disadvantage, as crucial flaws may only emerge during the final integration, making them more time-consuming and expensive to fix.

Testing software product presupposes the implementation of different testing methods and techniques. Integration testing is a technique in which program modules are combined and tested as a single unit. This type of testing is quite bulky and contains several approaches:

Big Bang Integration Testing is an approach in which all software components (modules) are combined at once and make a complicated system. This unity of different modules is then tested as an entity. According to this checking method, the integration process will not be executed until all components are completed.

Such an approach helps to save the tester’s time and effort while executing the tests. To meet the desired goals and results, QA engineers have to record properly test cases and their outcomes. Otherwise, the whole integration testing process will be failed. Below is the example of the Big Bang testing workflow:

Integration Testing with examples | Software Engineering
Integration Testing with examples | Software Engineering

Top-down Integration Testing

Top Down Integration Testing is a method in which integration testing takes place from top to bottom following the control flow of software system. The higher level modules are tested first and then lower level modules are tested and integrated in order to check the software functionality. Stubs are used for testing if some modules are not ready.

Diagrammatic Representation:

Advantages:

  • Fault Localization is easier.
  • Possibility to obtain an early prototype.
  • Critical Modules are tested on priority; major design flaws could be found and fixed first.

Disadvantages:

  • Needs many Stubs.
  • Modules at a lower level are tested inadequately.

Limitations of Big Bang Integration Testing

Here are some of the limitations of using Big Bang Integration Testing:

  • Can cause delays: It can cause testing delays if any integrated module is not completed on time.
  • Difficult to identify the root cause of errors: It can be difficult to find the exact source of errors when all modules are evaluated simultaneously, especially if they are detected during the final test.
  • Lower-quality software: If a lack of individual component testing is there, this testing might not help detect and fix individual component problems, resulting in lower-quality software.
  • Time-consuming: Integrating and testing all modules simultaneously can be time-consuming, requiring significant effort in debugging and correcting issues that arise during the testing process.
  • Inefficient: The absence of incremental testing in Big Bang Integration Testing can make it inefficient, as errors may go undetected until all modules are integrated and tested.
  • Scope for scale: This approach may not be scalable for big projects with several modules that need concurrently integrating and testing all parts.
  • Limited visibility: Incremental testing improves visibility and early fault identification, while Big Bang Testing may have limited visibility until all modules are integrated and tested simultaneously.
  • High risk: Integrating and testing all modules simultaneously poses a higher risk since any issues or failures can impact the entire system, making it a riskier approach.

Understanding the constraints of Big Bang Integration Testing is essential for software development teams when considering alternate methodologies or mitigating risks during the testing phase.

What is Integration Testing? | Approaches of Integration testing | What is Stub and Driver?
What is Integration Testing? | Approaches of Integration testing | What is Stub and Driver?

Features of Big Bang Integration Testing

The following are the features of big bang testing:

  • Simulation of the complete system: Big Bang Integration Testing involves modeling a system and integrating and testing all components and modules.
  • Testing all components together: All components are integrated and evaluated, allowing for thorough testing of their interactions.
  • Testing every single component: No component is left untested with simultaneous integration and testing, ensuring a full assessment of the entire system.
  • Early detection of errors: Big Bang Testing finds mistakes early in development, allowing for immediate adjustments before launch.
  • Allows for testing complex interactions: It allows for testing complicated interactions between components and detecting flaws that other approaches may overlook.
  • Simulate the behavior of lower-level components: During testing, stubs and drivers emulate the behavior of lower-level components.
  • The top-down approach: uses a top-down method, beginning with the highest level component and working its way down the component hierarchy.
  • The basic form of integration testing: Big Bang Integration Testing is the most basic and easy type, integrating and testing all components simultaneously.
  • Manual: Big Bang Testing is normally done manually due to the complexity of concurrently automating all modules’ testing.

Conclusion

The Big Bang approach is a method of integration testing that presupposes simultaneous checking of all system components. Its main benefit is that a tester can inspect the work of the whole system and its components.

However, if there are too many modules and the system is multilevel and complex, it is better not to apply the big-bang integration testing. In such cases, the checking process will be ineffective. The software specialists should analyze all system peculiarities, task completion dates, and plan the testing process with appropriate techniques and methodologies.

Testing is essential for ensuring software systems’ seamless operation and dependability. Performing testing early in the development process can help identify and fix issues. This saves precious time, money, and effort in the subsequent phases of development.

Developers can deliver robust software that meets the user’s needs with the help of system integration testing. However, a question arises: What is integration testing? How can it be performed, and what are its types? To answer this, let’s delve deeper into this topic. This blog will also explore the unit test vs integration test and integration testing examples. So, let’s get started.

Big bang approach in software testing ! Integration testing techniques
Big bang approach in software testing ! Integration testing techniques

Example of Integration Test Case

Integration Test Case differs from other test cases in the sense it focuses mainly on the interfaces & flow of data/information between the modules. Here priority is to be given for the integrating links rather than the unit functions which are already tested.

Sample Integration Test Cases for the following scenario: Application has 3 modules say ‘Login Page’, ‘Mailbox’ and ‘Delete emails’ and each of them is integrated logically.

Here do not concentrate much on the Login Page testing as it’s already been done in Unit Testing. But check how it’s linked to the Mail Box Page.

Similarly Mail Box: Check its integration to the Delete Mails Module.

Test Case ID Test Case Objective Test Case Description Expected Result
Check the interface link between the Login and Mailbox module Enter login credentials and click on the Login button To be directed to the Mail Box
Check the interface link between the Mailbox and Delete Mails Module From Mailbox select the email and click a delete button Selected email should appear in the Deleted/Trash folder

Best Practices/ Guidelines for Integration Testing

  • First, determine the Integration Test Strategy that could be adopted and later prepare the test cases and test data accordingly.
  • Study the Architecture design of the Application and identify the Critical Modules. These need to be tested on priority.
  • Obtain the interface designs from the Architectural team and create test cases to verify all of the interfaces in detail. Interface to database/external hardware/software application must be tested in detail.
  • After the test cases, it’s the test data which plays the critical role.
  • Always have the mock data prepared, prior to executing. Do not select test data while executing the test cases.
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Why do Integration Testing?

Although each software module is unit tested, defects still exist for various reasons like

  • A Module, in general, is designed by an individual software developer whose understanding and programming logic may differ from other programmers. Integration Testing becomes necessary to verify the software modules work in unity
  • At the time of module development, there are wide chances of change in requirements by the clients. These new requirements may not be unit tested and hence system integration Testing becomes necessary.
  • Interfaces of the software modules with the database could be erroneous
  • External Hardware interfaces, if any, could be erroneous
  • Inadequate exception handling could cause issues.

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Disadvantages of Big-Bang Testing

  • Defects present at the interfaces of components are identified at very late stage as all components are integrated in one shot.

  • It is very difficult to isolate the defects found.

  • There is high probability of missing some critical defects, which might pop up in the production environment.

  • It is very difficult to cover all the cases for integration testing without missing even a single scenario.

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In the world of software development, big bang testing is a type of integration testing.

Before software can be deployed and made available to users, it has to pass through a rigorous process in which all the different modules that make up the software are tested.

Testing ensures that the end product works exactly as it is intended to and does not run into any unforeseen errors.

In big bang integration testing, all the different modules are integrated simultaneously. After integration, the system is tested as a whole.

This is in contrast to the second model of integration testing, which uses an incremental approach.

The above example shows a system that consists of four different modules.

In big bang testing, all four modules are integrated simultaneously to test the system as a whole. The modules are not tested individually. Instead, they are tested together once the entire system is complete.

Since all the modules are tested at once, big bang testing requires little to no planning beforehand.

All the modules are completed before testing begins.

Another advantage of using big bang testing is that it tests the entire system.

Any defects in the interface of the modules are detected at a very late stage of software development.

It is challenging to isolate the defects, as the entire system is being tested at once, and any of the modules involved could have caused the error.

Big bang testing is also very time-consuming, as all possible test cases have to be tested at once.

Ideally, big bang testing should only be used for small systems.

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In Big Bang integration testing all components or modules are integrated simultaneously, after which everything is tested as a whole.

  • In this approach individual modules are not integrated until and unless all the modules are ready.
  • In Big Bang integration testing all the modules are integrated without performing any integration testing and then it’s executed to know whether all the integrated modules are working fine or not.
  • This approach is generally executed by those developers who follows the ‘Run it and see’ approach.
  • Because of integrating everything at one time if any failures occurs then it become very difficult for the programmers to know the root cause of that failure.
  • In case any bug arises then the developers has to detach the integrated modules in order to find the actual cause of the bug.

Below is the image of the big bang integration testing:

Suppose a system consists of four modules as displayed in the diagram above. In big bang integration all the four modules ‘Module A, Module B, Module C and Module D’ are integrated simultaneously and then the testing is performed. Hence in this approach no individual integration testing is performed because of which the chances of critical failures increases.

Advantage of Big Bang Integration:

  • Big Bang testing has the advantage that everything is finished before integration testing starts.

Disadvantages of Big Bang Integration:

  • The major disadvantage is that in general it is very time consuming
  • It is very difficult to trace the cause of failures because of this late integration.
  • The chances of having critical failures are more because of integrating all the components together at same time.
  • If any bug is found then it is very difficult to detach all the modules in order to find out the root cause of it.
  • There is high probability of occurrence of the critical bugs in the production environment
Other popular articles:
  • What is Integration testing? Examples, How To Do, Types/Approaches, Differences
  • What are Software Testing Levels?
  • What is Component testing?
  • What is Incremental testing in software?
  • What is smoke testing? When to use it? Advantages and Disadvantages

Big Bang Integration Testing in Software Testing

Are you prepared to witness a cosmic battle of software components? Prepare for an exciting voyage into Big Bang Integration Testing! This testing technique, similar to the creation of the cosmos; Big Bang Integration Testing, is a testing technique that integrates various software components to produce a stunning totality.

It is critical in software development to ensure the smooth interaction of various components. It is a high-stakes competition that puts compatibility and interoperability to the ultimate test. Imagine a swarm of modules representing a different celestial body, racing toward each other with the force of a supernova.

Big Bang Integration Testing is a unique technique that waits until all components are produced and ready for integration; bringing the entire system to life in a spectacular code explosion. So buckle up and be ready for an adrenaline-pumping journey into the galaxy of Big Bang Integration Testing.

We will look into the unique technique’s complexities, obstacles, and benefits that propel your software system to new heights!

Table Of Contents

  • 1 What is Big Bang Integration Testing?
  • 2 Features of Big Bang Integration Testing
  • 3 Workflow Diagram
  • 4 Big Bang Integration Testing and Test Automation
  • 5 Types of Big Bang Integration Testing
  • 6 Benefits of Big Bang Integration Testing
  • 7 Limitations of Big Bang Integration Testing
  • 8 Big Bang Testing Drawbacks
  • 9 Frequently Asked Questions
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Features of Big Bang Integration Testing

The following are the features of big bang testing:

  • Simulation of the complete system: Big Bang Integration Testing involves modeling a system and integrating and testing all components and modules.
  • Testing all components together: All components are integrated and evaluated, allowing for thorough testing of their interactions.
  • Testing every single component: No component is left untested with simultaneous integration and testing, ensuring a full assessment of the entire system.
  • Early detection of errors: Big Bang Testing finds mistakes early in development, allowing for immediate adjustments before launch.
  • Allows for testing complex interactions: It allows for testing complicated interactions between components and detecting flaws that other approaches may overlook.
  • Simulate the behavior of lower-level components: During testing, stubs and drivers emulate the behavior of lower-level components.
  • The top-down approach: uses a top-down method, beginning with the highest level component and working its way down the component hierarchy.
  • The basic form of integration testing: Big Bang Integration Testing is the most basic and easy type, integrating and testing all components simultaneously.
  • Manual: Big Bang Testing is normally done manually due to the complexity of concurrently automating all modules’ testing.

Benefits of Big Bang Integration Testing

Here are some of the benefits of using Big Bang Integration Testing:

The simplest form of integration testing: Big Bang Integration Testing is the simplest form of integration testing, as all modules are integrated at once and tested as a cohesive whole.

Easy to implement: Implementation is straightforward since all the modules are already developed and only need integration.

Bugs can be identified at once: By testing all modules together, errors and bugs can be identified simultaneously, allowing for comprehensive bug detection.

Suitable for small projects: This approach is particularly suitable for small projects where integrating all modules at once is feasible.

Thorough test: Big Bang Integration Testing ensures thorough testing of all module interfaces, promoting robust system behavior.

Potential problems are fixed early: By testing all components simultaneously, potential problems can be identified and addressed early in the development cycle.

Resource-saving: It helps save resources by eliminating the need for separate testing of individual components.

Uncover hidden dependencies: This testing method can reveal hidden dependencies between components that may not be apparent when testing them individually.

Simplify the testing process: Big Bang Integration Testing simplifies the testing process by avoiding the setup and configuration of testing environments for each component.

By leveraging the benefits of Big Bang Integration Testing, software development teams can achieve efficient and comprehensive testing, ensuring their systems’ smooth integration and functionality.

Data Engineering Mock Interview at Top Product Based Companies
Data Engineering Mock Interview at Top Product Based Companies

What is Big Bang Integration Testing?

Big Bang Integration Testing is a unique technique to software testing that brings all system elements together in one breathtaking instant. It allows developers to examine how the modules interact with each other and identify any potential issues or conflicts that may arise. This method offers a holistic view of the system’s functionality and ensures that all the integrated components work harmoniously.

Big Bang Integration Testing provides a full perspective of the system’s capabilities. This innovative and compelling testing approach pulls all system components together in one breathtaking instant. Providing a holistic perspective of the system’s operation while posing the problem of discovering and addressing difficulties in a thorough integration.

Limitations of Big Bang Integration Testing

Here are some of the limitations of using Big Bang Integration Testing:

  • Can cause delays: It can cause testing delays if any integrated module is not completed on time.
  • Difficult to identify the root cause of errors: It can be difficult to find the exact source of errors when all modules are evaluated simultaneously, especially if they are detected during the final test.
  • Lower-quality software: If a lack of individual component testing is there, this testing might not help detect and fix individual component problems, resulting in lower-quality software.
  • Time-consuming: Integrating and testing all modules simultaneously can be time-consuming, requiring significant effort in debugging and correcting issues that arise during the testing process.
  • Inefficient: The absence of incremental testing in Big Bang Integration Testing can make it inefficient, as errors may go undetected until all modules are integrated and tested.
  • Scope for scale: This approach may not be scalable for big projects with several modules that need concurrently integrating and testing all parts.
  • Limited visibility: Incremental testing improves visibility and early fault identification, while Big Bang Testing may have limited visibility until all modules are integrated and tested simultaneously.
  • High risk: Integrating and testing all modules simultaneously poses a higher risk since any issues or failures can impact the entire system, making it a riskier approach.

Understanding the constraints of Big Bang Integration Testing is essential for software development teams when considering alternate methodologies or mitigating risks during the testing phase.

Giải thích Big Data theo ngôn ngữ loài người bởi Senior Data Engineer
Giải thích Big Data theo ngôn ngữ loài người bởi Senior Data Engineer

How can big-bang integration testing save time and money for complex projects?

Big-bang integration testing is a strategy that involves testing all the modules of a system together after they are fully developed. It can be a risky and challenging approach, but it can also have some benefits for complex projects that need to save time and money. In this article, you will learn what big-bang integration testing is, how it differs from other integration testing methods, what are its advantages and disadvantages, and how to plan and execute it effectively.

Big-bang integration testing is a type of integration testing that combines all the modules or components of a system into a single unit and tests them as a whole. It does not use any intermediate stages or stubs to simulate the behavior of missing or incomplete modules. It is usually performed after the unit testing of individual modules is done, and before the system testing and acceptance testing.

There are other integration testing methods that use a more incremental and structured approach, such as top-down, bottom-up, and sandwich integration testing. These methods test the modules or components in groups or sub-systems, and use drivers or stubs to simulate the interactions between them. They also follow a predefined order or sequence to integrate the modules or components, based on their dependencies or hierarchy. These methods aim to reduce the complexity and risk of integration testing, and to detect and isolate errors more easily.

Big-bang integration testing can be a viable solution for complex projects that need to save time and money. This type of testing is faster and cheaper than other integration testing methods, as it does not require developing and maintaining drivers or stubs, or following a specific integration order. Additionally, it can test the system as a whole, revealing the interactions and dependencies between all the modules or components which may not be evident in other integration testing methods. It also facilitates communication and collaboration between developers and testers, as they can work on the same system and share the same test environment and data.

Big-bang integration testing can have some drawbacks and challenges that should be taken into consideration. It can be more risky and difficult than other integration testing methods, as it can introduce more errors and bugs, making them harder to identify and fix due to the complexity and interdependency of the system. Additionally, it can delay the testing process and the feedback loop since it requires the completion and availability of all modules or components, which may have different development schedules and priorities. Furthermore, it requires more resources and coordination than other integration testing methods, such as a large and stable test environment and data, as well as a strong integration team and management.

In order to perform big-bang integration testing effectively, careful planning and execution is required. This includes defining the scope and objectives of the integration testing and identifying the modules or components that need to be integrated and tested. Additionally, criteria and standards for the integration testing should be established, as well as designing test cases and scenarios that cover the functional and non-functional requirements of the system. The test environment and data must be prepared and made consistent, reliable, and able to handle the load and stress of the integration testing. It is also important to coordinate with developers and testers, assign clear roles and responsibilities for the integration testing, monitor progress, and report results. Lastly, errors or bugs that occur during integration testing should be analyzed, troubleshooted, prioritized, and resolved promptly.

How to do Integration Testing?

The Integration test procedure irrespective of the Software testing strategies (discussed above):

  1. Prepare the Integration Tests Plan
  2. Design the Test Scenarios, Cases, and Scripts.
  3. Executing the test Cases followed by reporting the defects.
  4. Tracking & re-testing the defects.
  5. Steps 3 and 4 are repeated until the completion of Integration is successful.
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Data Workshop | Khám phá hành trình Data Engineer tại MoMo & Bosch 18.07.2023 | UniGap Data Coaching

Unit Test vs Integration Test

Unit and integration tests serve distinct purposes and are carried out at various development lifecycle phases. The following table compares the key distinctions between unit tests and integration tests:

Aspect Unit Test Integration Test
Scope Concentrate on particular units or modules. Examine the interactions of integrated modules.
Purpose Check that each item functions independently. Check that all the interconnected pieces work correctly.
Isolation External dependencies are kept separate from the tests. Integration with real-world modules is required.
Speed Because it focuses on small units, execution is quicker. The execution time for is a bit longer due to the testing of various modules.
Coverage Offers extensive code coverage by exhaustively inspecting particular modules. Ensures that modules perform correctly as an element of the overall system.
Testing Workflow The developers typically perform unit tests before the integration. Integration tests are usually performed during the integration phase of the Software.

Workflow Diagram

The above workflow diagram depicts a series of tests and integrations to ensure the functionality and compatibility of the system’s modules. Module A, B, C, D, E, and F are individual units integrated into the system. The process is as follows:

Individual Testing:

Modules A and D undergo separate tests, assessing their functionality and performance.

Group Testing:

Module C, B, F, and E are combined to determine their overall functioning and compatibility, which are then examined as a group.

Sequential Testing:

Modules are evaluated methodically, with Module A being the first to be tested, followed by Module B, Module D. Finally, Module F. This procedure identifies possible faults or module dependencies.

Functionality and Compatibility Testing:

Modules are tested for functionality and interoperability to ensure they perform their intended functions and connect smoothly with the rest of the system.

Integration and System Testing:

Once all individual and group tests have been completed, the modules are incorporated into the system. After that, the complete system is tested to ensure its general functioning and performance.

By following this comprehensive workflow, the system’s modules are methodically assessed. Before being integrated into the larger system, the modules are tested to verify they fulfill the essential requirements of functioning and compatibility.

Once the integration testing phase is completed, automating the corresponding test cases is highly recommended. Test automation helps prevent regressions and ensures that the system functions correctly in the future.

Lời khuyên cho các bạn trước khi phỏng vấn BigTech 1 tháng từ ex-Software Engineer từ Meta
Lời khuyên cho các bạn trước khi phỏng vấn BigTech 1 tháng từ ex-Software Engineer từ Meta

Advantages of Integration Testing

While performing tests for integration, it examines how the complete software program serves as a unit, just as it will when people use it. The context-driven approach entails examining the precise setting in which the product will be used. It recognizes that the software’s operation depends on more than just its components.

It also depends on how these components interact when seen as a whole. It’s similar to considering how a team functions rather than just each player’s skills.

Validate Dataflow

It examines how data moves between various units and database servers. It validates that data is transmitted effectively and without degradation. This reduces the danger of data-related issues in the live environment.

Identifying External Dependencies

Most software programs utilize external resources like APIs or third-party systems. It examines how the software interacts with these dependencies through real-world simulation. This aid in the identification of any compatibility issues.

Customized Test Scenarios

It enables testers to develop specialized test scenarios that reflect the software’s unique properties and user interfaces. This allows a more accurate assessment of critical features.

Scalability Validation

It validates scalability by using a context-driven methodology. This looks at how interconnected units manage rising workloads to ensure the system can support expansion in the future.

Types Of Integration Testing

The four types of integration testing are:

Top-down integration testing

Top-down integration testing is a famous approach focusing first on the main module and then on its other sub-modules and subroutines. Here, the sub-modules and sub-routines function as temporary counterparts and generate outputs similar to the existing software.

As the main module or routine is emphasized first in this type of testing, and then the testing for sub-modules and sub-routines are executed, it is called top-down integration testing.

Bottom-up integration testing

In bottom-up integration testing, the testing process for the sub-modules or sub-routines is done first, and then the main module or routine is tested.

Bottom-up testing is also considered an incremental method where two or more sub-modules or sub-routines are combined and tested first. Then gradually, the main module is tested. This is also the reason why it’s called bottom-up integration testing.

Mixed/sandwich integration testing

Sandwich integration testing or mixed integration testing refers to a hybrid integration testing process that combines the top-down and bottom-up integration testing methods. Since it utilizes the positive sides of both these integration testing methods, it is highly sought-after by testers.

In sandwich integration testing, the sub-modules are tested along with the upper-level modules, while the top-level modules are integrated with the sub-modules for testing purposes. This makes integration testing more efficient, cost-effective, and time-efficient.

Big-bang integration testing

Big-bang integration testing is quite popular among testers, especially hose who don’t want to go through the modules and sub-modules testing approaches and prefer a faster testing process.

In big-bang integration testing, all the system modules, components, or units are connected as a single unit or software and the testing is executed on it as a whole. While this is a more accessible and simpler approach for software testing, bug detection & isolation and individual interface testing often become challenging with this approach.

See More: What is Root-Cause Analysis? Working, Templates, and Examples

Testing the Burger King website | Exploratory Testing | QA
Testing the Burger King website | Exploratory Testing | QA

Integration Testing Types

It can be divided into two subtypes:

  • Incremental testing
  • Non-Incremental testing

Incremental testing involves testing software modules in small increments. The testing of the software starts with smaller pieces and works its way up to the entire system.

Each test improves the software by integrating additional modules. Compared to testing the complete system simultaneously, this offers advantages, including early feedback, more straightforward troubleshooting, and decreased complexity. Incremental testing provides two main types:

  • Top-Down integration
  • Bottom-Up integration

Non-incremental testing involves testing software modules. In this type, the testing takes place after all the modules are developed and ready for integration. The whole software is tested at one time. The non-incremental testing is often known as the big bang integration approach for testing. Let’s look at how these types work and what advantages they offer.

  1. Top-Down Integration

Top-down testing employs a systematic approach to testing the software modules from the top level down through the system hierarchy. The testing begins with the main module of the software and then proceeds to test the submodules of the application.

Its primary goal is to ensure functionality between the higher-level modules and their submodules. As the testing procedure progresses through the hierarchy, module relationships are checked to ensure the software components operate as designed.

Since higher-level modules undergo evaluation before lower-level ones, this technique enables the early discovery of high-level design faults. It aids in the early development phase’s detection of potential structural issues.

Stubs can emulate lower-level modules, so testing can start even before they are entirely constructed. This aid in improving the testing procedure and give the development team input more quickly.

  1. Bottom-Up Integration

When performing Bottom-Up testing, lower-level modules are tested first. It gradually moves to the higher-level modules, and so on, until all facets of the software have been thoroughly tested. This strategy is referred to as inductive reasoning. It is beneficial when incorporating pre-made or already-existing components into the final product.

It involves writing code for various modules rather than focusing on stubs or mock objects. That’s why its success rate is higher than other approaches.

Furthermore, the execution time for the tests is frequently shorter than other traditional methodologies. This makes it simpler for the testers to conduct tests and construct the project to achieve the best results possible.

  1. Big-Bang Approach

It entails compiling all software modules into one structure and evaluating it as one unit. Individual modules are not examined separately. Instead, they are combined and tested in a single process.

It necessitates firm communication between the development and testing teams to appropriately identify and solve any issues detected during the testing procedure. The big-bang strategy can be quicker and less expensive than alternative approaches, as developers don’t need incremental testing.

This strategy could work for software systems with fewer and less intricate component relationships. However, it might be challenging to identify the precise module when flaws are discovered during testing. Let’s check out the integration testing example to see how it works.

Best Practices Of Integration Testing

One can take different approaches to perform integration testing, and one needs to know the best practices and strategies to leverage them at their best. Let’s have a look at the top best practices for integration testing.

Maintain dedicated test suites

Maintaining separate and dedicated test suites is recommended to ensure that unit testing and integration testing are executed separately to avoid complexities and make them even more purposeful.

Since testers often require prompt feedback through unit tests, the test suites may require additional time and space. In such a scenario, keeping the test suites separate and running the testing processes separately is recommended. Also, the lack of maintenance of unit testing infrastructure may result in an overall delay in the testing and software delivery process. The best practice to avoid such a scenario is dedicating separate suites for integration testing and unit testing.

Keep business logic separate

To avoid complexities related to integration testing and unit testing, it is recommended to refrain from testing business logic along with integration testing. Whenever any build is triggered in a CI environment, testers prefer to execute unit testing as it works faster than other testing methods and fulfills the requirement of testing the efficiency of each software unit.

This is why unit testing is executed to check for issues or bugs in business logic and fix them immediately. On the other hand, integration testing is more time-consuming and complex than unit testing, so it’s not recommended to run integration testing for every business logic. The best practice will be keeping the business logic separate from integration testing and testing them as units through unit testing.

Leverage the scope of extensive logging

No matter what type of software it is, if it’s small, one can test and fix issues through unit testing. It lets you quickly test any software with a particular scope and helps detect and fix problems in case the unit testing process fails.

Integration testing, on the other hand, involves different software modules and sub-modules. The scope involves different software components, functionalities, and interactions in such a case. As a result, if integration testing fails, detecting and fixing the cause may take more time, and the process becomes quite complex.

In this scenario, extensive or exhaustive logging comes into play, which helps detect and fix the cause of the failure by considering the software’s different components. While it is recommended to keep the provision and scope of extensive logging, it should only be adopted when required, as this may affect the performance of the testing process.

See More: What Is Penetration Testing? Types, Methods, and Best Practices

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How I got my internship Big4 PwC, KPMG| Mình xin thực tập ở công ty hàng đầu thế giới như thế nào?

What Is Integration Testing?

Integration testing is a software testing process where software components, modules, or units are tested to evaluate system compliance concerning functional requirements.

Integration testing is the second level of the software testing process after the unit testing process. This testing phase is crucial to ensure seamless interactions among various units/components, their functionalities, and how well they can operate as a single entity. The following are the steps for integration testing:

Craft integration testing plan

The first step of integration testing is to craft a complete integration testing plan, including which units need to be tested, the key goals of testing, what functionalities and interactions to check, and how to ensure optimum operability for the system units. This will help execute the integration testing process and give a clear idea of what to expect.

Define relevant tests & use cases

A test case refers to a specific set of inputs, testing methods, execution conditions, and expected test outputs or results. Use cases, on the other hand, define the applicability of the testing process.

Based on specific software units, features, software development requirements, and other factors, one needs to determine the test and use cases for unit testing to execute the integration testing efficiently.

Run testing method

Various integration testing methods exist, such as risky-hardest, top-down, big-bang, and others. Integration testing is executed through a black box testing approach where the testers utilize the software interface to interact with it. In integration testing, the focus is not on the codes or how they work but on how they function, which is tested through the interface.

Scan & detect errors

This stage is dedicated to running an in-depth scan to find any possible errors in the combined functionalities of the software units, modules, or components. This step helps find out whether the software components are functioning correctly and interacting with each other. Gaps or issues are needed to be fixed after this stage.

Retest after fixing errors

Once the issues are fixed after the initial testing, retesting is done to ensure that there are no bugs and the previous ones are fixed completely. This stage is vital to ensure the optimum functionality of a system or software and make it completely error-free.

Retest to eliminate all errors

This is the last and final stage of integration testing. As the name suggests, retesting should be performed repeatedly until all the issues or bugs are fixed, and optimum software quality and functionality are achieved.

See More: What Is TDD (Test Driven Development)? Process, Importance, and Limitations

Frequently Asked Questions

Is Big Bang an incremental testing?

No, Big Bang Integration Testing is not an incremental testing method but rather a method of integrating all components simultaneously, without any incremental phases. This method waits until all components are completed before integrating them all at once.

What is the major disadvantage of the Big Bang approach for integration?

The Big Bang technique for integration is a disadvantage due to its difficulty in isolating and pinpointing particular failures or difficulties. This lack of granularity complicates debugging and troubleshooting, leading to longer resolution times and more work in detecting and addressing issues. Defect identification is also a big disadvantage, as crucial flaws may only emerge during the final integration, making them more time-consuming and expensive to fix.

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Tìm hiểu kỹ thuật test “Integration Testing”

Bài đăng này đã không được cập nhật trong 7 năm

  • Định nghĩa:

    • Kiểm thử tích hợp là 1 cấp độ của kiểm thử phần mềm mà các đơn vị riêng lẻ được kết hợp và kiểm thử như 1 nhóm.
  • Mục đích:

    • để lộ lỗi trong sự tương tác giữa các đơn vị tích hợp.
  • Kiểm thử tích hợp thành phần: Kiểm thử thực hiện để lộ khiếm khuyết trong các giao diện và tương tác giữa các thành phần tích hợp.
  • khi nào thì bạn thực hiện Integration Testing: Kiểm thử tích hợp được thực hiện sau kiểm thử đơn vị và trước kiểm thử hệ thống.
  • Phương pháp thực hiện:

    • Big Bang: là 1 cách tiếp cận để kiểm thử tích hợp mà tất cả hoặc hầu hết các đơn vị được kết hợp với nhau và kiểm thử tại 1 nơi. Cách tiếp cận này được thực hiện khi các nhóm kiểm thử nhận được toàn bộ phần mềm.
    • Top Down: Từ trên xuống là 1 cách tiếp cận để tiếp cận để kiểm thử tích hợp đơn vị cao nhất được kiểm thử đầu tiên và đơn vị dưới được kiểm thử từng bước sau đó. Cách tiếp cận này được thực hiện từ trên xuống, cách tiếp cận và phát triển được thực hiện sau đó
    • Bottom Up : Từ dưới lên là 1 cách tiếp cận để kiểm thử tích hợp ở đơn vị cấp dưới được kiểm thử đơn vị cấp độ đầu tiên từng bước sau đó. Cách tiếp cận này được thực hiện khi áp dụng phương pháp phát triển sau đó
    • Sandwich/ Hybrid là 1 cách tiếp cận để kiểm thử tích hợp , đó là 1 sự kết hợp của Top Down và cách tiếp cận Bottom Up.

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Big Bang Integration Testing

Integration testing is a type of testing that is used to check the functionality of integrated components of a software system. It is usually performed after unit testing and before validation testing. In integration testing, individual software components are combined and tested as a group. The purpose of this testing is to check if the components work together as expected. Integration testing can be either bottom-up or top-down.

What is Big Bang Integration Testing?

Big bang integration testing is a testing approach where all components or modules are integrated and tested as a single unit. This is done after all modules have been completed and before any system-level testing is performed. This is in contrast to incremental integration testing, in which components are tested one at a time or in small groups. This approach is typically used when there is a tight deadline for delivering the software product, and all development teams are working in parallel on their respective components. For example, consider a simple system with three modules A, B, and C. Module A has been tested and found to be working correctly. The same is true for modules B and C. To test the system as a whole, all three modules are integrated and tested together.

In some cases, big bang integration testing may be the only option available. For example, if the system to be tested is too complex or too large to test piecemeal, then big bang integration testing is the only option. Big bang integration testing is a testing methodology in which all components or modules of a system are combined and tested as a whole. It is often used when it is not practical to test all components together incrementally.

Features of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are the features of big bang integration testing:

  • Simulation of the complete system: Big bang integration testing involves simulating the complete system. This means that all components and modules are integrated and tested at the same time.
  • Testing all components together: Since all components are integrated and tested at the same time, this means that all components are tested together. This is beneficial as it allows for the testing of interactions between components.
  • No component is left untested: Since all components are integrated and tested together, this means that no component is left untested. This is beneficial as it ensures that all aspects of the system are tested.
  • Early detection of errors: Big bang integration testing can detect errors early on in the development process. This is beneficial as it allows for the correction of errors before the system is deployed.
  • Allows for testing of complex interactions: Big bang integration testing allows for testing of complex interactions between components. This is beneficial as it allows for the identification of errors that may not be detected by other testing methods.
  • Simulate the behavior of lower-level components: Big bang integration testing uses stubs and drivers to simulate the behavior of lower-level components.
  • Top-down approach: It is also known as a top-down approach because testing starts from the highest level component and moves down the component hierarchy.
  • The basic form of integration testing: It is the most basic form of integration testing, where all components are integrated and tested together.
  • Risky: It can be very risky, as all components need to be working correctly for the system to work correctly. This approach is not recommended for large or complex projects.
  • End of the development cycle: This type of testing is usually done at the end of the development cycle when all the modules are ready to be integrated. It can be used to test the functionality of the system as a whole.
  • Manual: This type of testing is usually done manually, as it can be difficult to automate all the modules at once.
  • Time-consuming and expensive: It can be time-consuming and expensive, as all the modules need to be tested together.

Workflow Diagram

The Big-bang integration workflow diagram is a process diagram that shows how different parts of a system are integrated. It is typically used to show how different software components are integrated. It is a graphical representation of the software development process that is used in many organizations. It is a process that starts with the idea for a new software project and ends with the delivery of the software to the customer.

Workflow explanation:

  • Modules A and D are all tested individually for the system.
  • Module C is combined with module B and module F is combined with module E to be tested as a group.
  • Module A is tested first, followed by module B, then D, and finally F.
  • Each module is tested for functionality and compatibility with the other modules.
  • After all, modules are tested, they are integrated into the system and the entire system is tested for functionality.

Types of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are the two types of big bang integration testing:

  1. Top-down Integration: In this approach, the higher-level modules are integrated first and then the lower-level modules are integrated. This approach is generally used when the lower-level modules are not yet ready or when the dependencies between the modules are not well known. In this type of testing, the module at the top of the control hierarchy is tested first, followed by the module at the next level down, and so on. This type of testing is also known as a “trickle-down” approach.
  2. Bottom-up Integration: In this approach, the lower-level modules are integrated first and then the higher-level modules are integrated. This approach is generally used when the higher-level modules are not yet ready or when the dependencies between the modules are not well known. In this type of testing, the module at the bottom of the control hierarchy is tested first, followed by the module at the next level up, and so on. This type of testing is also known as a “bubble-up” approach.

Benefits of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are some of the advantages of using big bang integration testing:

  • The simplest form of integration testing: It is the simplest form of integration testing as all the modules are integrated at once and tested as a whole.
  • Easy to implement: It is easy to implement as all the modules are already present and just need to be integrated.
  • Bugs can be identified at once: All the errors and bugs can be identified at once as all the modules are tested together.
  • Suitable for small projects: This approach is suitable for small projects where all modules can be integrated at once.
  • Thorough test: All interfaces between modules are tested very thoroughly.
  • Potential problems are fixed early: All components are tested at once, so potential problems can be identified and fixed early on.
  • Save resources: It can save resources by avoiding the need to test individual components separately.
  • Uncover hidden dependencies: It can uncover hidden dependencies between components that might not be apparent from testing them individually.
  • Simplify the testing process: It can simplify the testing process by avoiding the need to set up and configure testing environments for each component.

Limitations of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are some of the limitations of using big bang integration testing:

  • Can cause Delays: All modules must be completed and ready for testing before integration can begin. This can cause delays if any module is not completed on time. So, it can cause disruptions to normal workflows.
  • Difficult to identify the root cause of errors: It can be difficult to identify the cause of errors when all modules are tested together. It can be difficult to identify the root cause of errors if they are discovered during the final test.
  • Lower-quality software: This approach can lead to lower-quality software due to the lack of testing of individual components.
  • Time-consuming: Big bang integration testing can be time-consuming because all the modules are integrated at once and tested together. This can lead to a lot of time being spent on debugging and fixing errors.
  • Inefficient: It can be inefficient because it does not allow for incremental testing. This means that errors can go undetected until all the modules are integrated and tested together.
  • Not scalable: It is not scalable because it requires all the modules to be integrated and tested together. This can be a problem for large projects with many modules.
  • Limited visibility: It can have limited visibility because it does not allow for incremental testing. This means that errors can go undetected until all the modules are integrated and tested together.
  • High risk: It is a high-risk approach because all the modules are integrated and tested together. This can lead to a lot of errors and failures.

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What Is Integration Testing? Types, Tools, and Best Practices

Integration testing reduces bugs, errors, or issues in the interaction between integrated units, components, or modules of the software.

Integration testing is defined as a software testing process where a group of software components, modules, or units are tested to evaluate system compliance with respect to functional requirements.

Table of Contents

Big Bang Testing Drawbacks

Certainly! Here are some drawbacks of Big Bang Testing:

  • Difficulty isolating failures: With big bang testing, its difficult to isolate failures due to the integration of all components simultaneously, leading to greater debugging work and limited fault localization. This can lead to lengthy troubleshooting and resolution time.
  • Late detection of defects: This testing increases the likelihood of identifying key issues late in the development cycle, making them more time-consuming and expensive to fix. It also limits the ability to construct effective and targeted test cases due to the lack of individual component testability.
  • Reduced test coverage: Big Bang’s success is due to its reliance on the stability and readiness of all components, which can lead to delays and interruptions if any module is not completed or running properly. This is because all components are integrated simultaneously, resulting in reduced test coverage and greater reliance on system stability.
  • Limited risk mitigation: The inability to identify and mitigate risks early in the development process lowers the capacity to recognize and mitigate risks, potentially leading to more serious effects if concerns surface during Big Bang Testing.

Software development teams should consider the viability of Big Bang Testing for their projects and consider alternative methodologies to solve these limitations.

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Types of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are the two types of Big Bang Integration Testing:

Top-down Integration:

Testing begins at the top of the control hierarchy and works its way down, also called a “trickle-down” approach. Higher-level modules are merged first, followed by lower-level modules when necessary. Testing begins at the top and works its way down.

Bottom-up Integration:

Also known as the “bubble-up” approach, which includes integrating lower-level modules first, then higher-level components. It is employed when higher-level modules are not yet ready, or dependencies between modules are unclear. Testing begins at the bottom of the control hierarchy and works its way up.

These two big bang integration testing forms provide greater flexibility in integrating modules based on their readiness and dependencies. Which strategy to execute – top-down or bottom-up – is determined by the individual project needs and the availability of modules at various levels of the system’s control structure.

Top 9 Tools For Integration Testing

One needs to adopt the right integration testing tools to execute the integration testing process efficiently. Here’s a list of the top nine tools that you can opt for integration testing:

Citrus

Citrus is a popular integration testing tool based on Java and is suitable for integration testing for diverse applications and data formats. Be it response data and plain text messaging request or JSON or XML, Citrus facilitates them all through diverse protocols such as SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), JMS (Java Message Service), and HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), to name a few.

Some of its top features that can improve integration testing are:

  • Easy-to-use and open source
  • Helps in advanced data and header validation
  • Can act as both client and consumer by exchanging request/response message
  • Test automation that can run as integration testing in CI/CD pipeline

SITA (Smart Integration Test Accelerator)

SITA or Smart Integration Test Accelerator is a widely used integration testing tool that operates with a business-centric approach. It lets one execute and streamline the integration testing process for diverse systems and use cases and simplifies the complexities of testing through approaches such as bottom-up.

Some of its top features that help execute integration testing are:

  • Simplifies the process flow of integration testing and minimizes the time taken
  • It helps generate test data easily
  • Automate diverse test design activities
  • Facilitates the reusability of a broad range of test cases and test data
  • Allows the utilization of its potential by easily integrating it with diverse tools such as HP ALM, IBM Rational, and others

LDRA

LDRA is one of the top integration testing tools that help achieve the best possible software quality. Dominating the software testing market for more than 40 years, LDRA helps adhere to different software compliance standards and helps one easily run a complete analysis through integration testing.

Its TBrun and LDRAunit are the most popular among software testers, meant to achieve high software quality and improved interaction among modules through integration testing.

Here’s a list of the top features of LDRA that help in integration testing:

  • Offers a compact and dynamic solution for integration testing for various types of software
  • Provides a tailored solution for integration testing as per the specific requirements of a software
  • Gives highly cost-effective solutions for integration testing as well as unit testing to ensure the functionalities of each of the software units as well as the whole software

Rational Integration Tester

Formerly known as Green Hat and acquired by IBM in 2012, Rational Integration Tester is the most suitable for integration testing in use cases such as SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) messaging tests, integration, and other relevant projects.

Not only does it help reduce crucial integration issues, bugs, and errors but it also helps adopt an iterative approach for the best possible result.

Let’s have a look at its top features:

  • Lets one create an advanced and suitable scripting-free environment
  • Enables the creation of reusable stubs that are free from coding and carry on with the testing even in cases of missing software modules
  • Offers an Agile development and testing solution to bring out the best in the integration testing process
  • Helps in implementing a time-efficient integration testing process

Tessy

Tessy is a highly sought-after integration testing tool by software testers. It is the most suitable for the unit testing of embedded software and helps analyze and identify the code coverage for any software. Furthermore, its CTE (Classification Tree Editor) helps define diverse test cases through a systematic approach.

These are its key features:

  • Lets one quickly analyze diverse system interfaces and functions
  • Provides compact analysis and testing functions for TIE (Test Interface Editor), Test Data Editor (TDE), and Workspace
  • Helps with test execution, test results, and test analysis
  • Offers compact support for code coverage

Validata MSG

Validata MSG is a widely used integration testing tool focused on automating the integration testing process and increasing its efficiency. It provides a compact framework for automation testing for SWIFT, SOA, ATM, and other generic interfaces.

This integration testing tool reduces the complexities of integration testing and the time taken to execute integration testing, as well as helps stimulate different types of business use cases and test cases to make integration testing even more effective.

Some of the key features of this integration testing tool are:

  • Offers a cutting-edge test automation solution
  • Provides a range of end-to-end business cases and scenarios for efficient integration testing
  • It comes with an all-in-one solution to ensure file formatting, data content and improved testing process flow
  • Lets one leverage its broad range of pre-built test scenarios to make integration testing even more efficient
  • Offers dedicated solutions to schedule, test, and validate SWIFT, ATM, SOA, and others.

Protractor

Dedicated to ensuring better integration testing for Angular and AngularJS applications, Protractor works as a wrapper around Selenium web driver. It provides a complete framework for automated integration testing and helps stimulate user interaction with Angular web applications for several use cases and test cases.

One of its unique advantages is that it comprises Angular-based features and the key features of Selenium WebDriver. This popular web framework enables one to perform cross-browser tests easily.

Let’s have a look at some of the prime features of Protractor:

  • Offers completely managed end-to-end frameworks for the integration testing of Angular and AngularJS applications
  • Utilizes browser-based drivers and various native events to stimulate user interactions with software
  • Comes with diverse locator strategies that are focused on automating and improving the integration testing of Angular products
  • Offers a compact automated waiting and execution process that bypasses the hassles of manually adding waits and sleeps

VectorCAST/C++

VectorCAST/C++ helps build a strong foundation for integration testing and improves the whole integration testing process. It helps test each module, component, or routine of software to ensure that they are functioning correctly individually and that there are no bugs or errors. It also lets one run integration testing after combining all these components and modules to check their interactions and functionalities.

Here’s a list of the top features of the integration testing tool VectorCAST/C++:

  • Offers a complete integrated code coverage utility
  • Equipped with a completely automated framework to facilitate automated integration testing
  • Provides a range of integration testing solutions for diverse embedded systems with differential business cases
  • Equipped with an advanced dynamic test solution that fits the integration testing requirements of various software–healthcare & medical software, SaaS products, industrial software, and others
  • Comes with an advanced solution to implement and execute diverse repetitive and consistent processes related to integration testing

VectorCAST/Ada

VectorCAST/Ada is an integration testing tool that you can easily integrate with other tools such as IBM Rational, Green Hills, and others to make integration testing even more powerful. It lets you perform integration testing for several test cases, use cases, and business cases as required for software.

Another key advantage of using this integration testing tool is that it automates the process of drivers and stub creation through its simple-to-use code generator.

Here are some of its top features to leverage for integration testing:

  • Offers a range of dynamic software testing solutions for integration testing requirements
  • It comes with an advanced integration testing solution suitable for embedded developers
  • Provides an easy solution for integration testing execution from GUI (Graphical User Interface) and scripts
  • Equipped with an in-depth code complexity analysis and risk highlighting feature that offers better outputs from integration testing
  • It lets you utilize the present existing tests to facilitate automated regression testing
  • Offers an easy integration solution with a range of systems and software, including IBM® Rational® Rhapsody®, DDC-I™ SCORE®, IBM® Rational® DOORS®, AdaCore GNAT, Green Hills® AdaMULTI™, Atego™ ObjectAda®, and other tools
  • Offers complete automation for simulator test execution for diverse test and business cases
  • Provides an end-to-end solution for on-target testing processes
  • Automates the execution process of stub codes and drivers deployment

See More: What Is Regression Testing? Definition, Techniques, and Tools

Takeaway

Integration testing is crucial in ensuring functionality and interactions among various software modules. Hence, it is used widely in testing different types of software in diverse sectors, from SaaS to eCommerce. However, it is recommended to execute integration testing after unit testing to test the individual unit’s functionalities and the functionalities and interactions among these units to ensure optimum software quality.

Did this article help you understand how integration testing works and its best practices? Let us know on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. We’d love to hear from you!

Big Bang Integration Testing

Integration testing is a type of testing that is used to check the functionality of integrated components of a software system. It is usually performed after unit testing and before validation testing. In integration testing, individual software components are combined and tested as a group. The purpose of this testing is to check if the components work together as expected. Integration testing can be either bottom-up or top-down.

What is Big Bang Integration Testing?

Big bang integration testing is a testing approach where all components or modules are integrated and tested as a single unit. This is done after all modules have been completed and before any system-level testing is performed. This is in contrast to incremental integration testing, in which components are tested one at a time or in small groups. This approach is typically used when there is a tight deadline for delivering the software product, and all development teams are working in parallel on their respective components. For example, consider a simple system with three modules A, B, and C. Module A has been tested and found to be working correctly. The same is true for modules B and C. To test the system as a whole, all three modules are integrated and tested together.

In some cases, big bang integration testing may be the only option available. For example, if the system to be tested is too complex or too large to test piecemeal, then big bang integration testing is the only option. Big bang integration testing is a testing methodology in which all components or modules of a system are combined and tested as a whole. It is often used when it is not practical to test all components together incrementally.

Features of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are the features of big bang integration testing:

  • Simulation of the complete system: Big bang integration testing involves simulating the complete system. This means that all components and modules are integrated and tested at the same time.
  • Testing all components together: Since all components are integrated and tested at the same time, this means that all components are tested together. This is beneficial as it allows for the testing of interactions between components.
  • No component is left untested: Since all components are integrated and tested together, this means that no component is left untested. This is beneficial as it ensures that all aspects of the system are tested.
  • Early detection of errors: Big bang integration testing can detect errors early on in the development process. This is beneficial as it allows for the correction of errors before the system is deployed.
  • Allows for testing of complex interactions: Big bang integration testing allows for testing of complex interactions between components. This is beneficial as it allows for the identification of errors that may not be detected by other testing methods.
  • Simulate the behavior of lower-level components: Big bang integration testing uses stubs and drivers to simulate the behavior of lower-level components.
  • Top-down approach: It is also known as a top-down approach because testing starts from the highest level component and moves down the component hierarchy.
  • The basic form of integration testing: It is the most basic form of integration testing, where all components are integrated and tested together.
  • Risky: It can be very risky, as all components need to be working correctly for the system to work correctly. This approach is not recommended for large or complex projects.
  • End of the development cycle: This type of testing is usually done at the end of the development cycle when all the modules are ready to be integrated. It can be used to test the functionality of the system as a whole.
  • Manual: This type of testing is usually done manually, as it can be difficult to automate all the modules at once.
  • Time-consuming and expensive: It can be time-consuming and expensive, as all the modules need to be tested together.

Workflow Diagram

The Big-bang integration workflow diagram is a process diagram that shows how different parts of a system are integrated. It is typically used to show how different software components are integrated. It is a graphical representation of the software development process that is used in many organizations. It is a process that starts with the idea for a new software project and ends with the delivery of the software to the customer.

Workflow explanation:

  • Modules A and D are all tested individually for the system.
  • Module C is combined with module B and module F is combined with module E to be tested as a group.
  • Module A is tested first, followed by module B, then D, and finally F.
  • Each module is tested for functionality and compatibility with the other modules.
  • After all, modules are tested, they are integrated into the system and the entire system is tested for functionality.

Types of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are the two types of big bang integration testing:

  1. Top-down Integration: In this approach, the higher-level modules are integrated first and then the lower-level modules are integrated. This approach is generally used when the lower-level modules are not yet ready or when the dependencies between the modules are not well known. In this type of testing, the module at the top of the control hierarchy is tested first, followed by the module at the next level down, and so on. This type of testing is also known as a “trickle-down” approach.
  2. Bottom-up Integration: In this approach, the lower-level modules are integrated first and then the higher-level modules are integrated. This approach is generally used when the higher-level modules are not yet ready or when the dependencies between the modules are not well known. In this type of testing, the module at the bottom of the control hierarchy is tested first, followed by the module at the next level up, and so on. This type of testing is also known as a “bubble-up” approach.

Benefits of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are some of the advantages of using big bang integration testing:

  • The simplest form of integration testing: It is the simplest form of integration testing as all the modules are integrated at once and tested as a whole.
  • Easy to implement: It is easy to implement as all the modules are already present and just need to be integrated.
  • Bugs can be identified at once: All the errors and bugs can be identified at once as all the modules are tested together.
  • Suitable for small projects: This approach is suitable for small projects where all modules can be integrated at once.
  • Thorough test: All interfaces between modules are tested very thoroughly.
  • Potential problems are fixed early: All components are tested at once, so potential problems can be identified and fixed early on.
  • Save resources: It can save resources by avoiding the need to test individual components separately.
  • Uncover hidden dependencies: It can uncover hidden dependencies between components that might not be apparent from testing them individually.
  • Simplify the testing process: It can simplify the testing process by avoiding the need to set up and configure testing environments for each component.

Limitations of Big Bang Integration Testing

Below are some of the limitations of using big bang integration testing:

  • Can cause Delays: All modules must be completed and ready for testing before integration can begin. This can cause delays if any module is not completed on time. So, it can cause disruptions to normal workflows.
  • Difficult to identify the root cause of errors: It can be difficult to identify the cause of errors when all modules are tested together. It can be difficult to identify the root cause of errors if they are discovered during the final test.
  • Lower-quality software: This approach can lead to lower-quality software due to the lack of testing of individual components.
  • Time-consuming: Big bang integration testing can be time-consuming because all the modules are integrated at once and tested together. This can lead to a lot of time being spent on debugging and fixing errors.
  • Inefficient: It can be inefficient because it does not allow for incremental testing. This means that errors can go undetected until all the modules are integrated and tested together.
  • Not scalable: It is not scalable because it requires all the modules to be integrated and tested together. This can be a problem for large projects with many modules.
  • Limited visibility: It can have limited visibility because it does not allow for incremental testing. This means that errors can go undetected until all the modules are integrated and tested together.
  • High risk: It is a high-risk approach because all the modules are integrated and tested together. This can lead to a lot of errors and failures.

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Big Bang Integration Testing in Software Testing

Are you prepared to witness a cosmic battle of software components? Prepare for an exciting voyage into Big Bang Integration Testing! This testing technique, similar to the creation of the cosmos; Big Bang Integration Testing, is a testing technique that integrates various software components to produce a stunning totality.

It is critical in software development to ensure the smooth interaction of various components. It is a high-stakes competition that puts compatibility and interoperability to the ultimate test. Imagine a swarm of modules representing a different celestial body, racing toward each other with the force of a supernova.

Big Bang Integration Testing is a unique technique that waits until all components are produced and ready for integration; bringing the entire system to life in a spectacular code explosion. So buckle up and be ready for an adrenaline-pumping journey into the galaxy of Big Bang Integration Testing.

We will look into the unique technique’s complexities, obstacles, and benefits that propel your software system to new heights!

Table Of Contents

  • 1 What is Big Bang Integration Testing?
  • 2 Features of Big Bang Integration Testing
  • 3 Workflow Diagram
  • 4 Big Bang Integration Testing and Test Automation
  • 5 Types of Big Bang Integration Testing
  • 6 Benefits of Big Bang Integration Testing
  • 7 Limitations of Big Bang Integration Testing
  • 8 Big Bang Testing Drawbacks
  • 9 Frequently Asked Questions
Integration Testing In Software Testing In Hindi
Integration Testing In Software Testing In Hindi

Big Bang Integration Testing and Test Automation

Compared to manual testing, automating such tests gives various advantages, including time and effort savings. It helps teams to quickly detect potential problems or inaccuracies throughout later development cycles. The testing procedure becomes faster and the accuracy of outcomes improves dramatically with automated tests.

Testsigma is an effective solution for automating online, mobile API, and desktop testing. It offers a comprehensive framework for streamlining and simplifying test automation, allowing for faster input on any problems or errors that may surface during subsequent development cycles. Without programming experience, you can quickly build, execute, and manage automated test cases using Testsigma. This will improve the reliability and speed of your testing efforts, lowering the likelihood of regression mistakes and enhancing the overall quality of your program.

Example of automating your big bang integration tests with Testsigma

For the sake of demonstration, we will demonstrate the example of automating the scenario of integration between cart and the payment gateway using Testsigma, you can follow these steps:

1. Testcase Creation:

a. Open the Testsigma Recorder app, which allows you to record and convert your test steps into NLP-based steps.

b. Start recording the test scenario by clicking the “Record” button.

c. Perform the actions of adding items to the cart, such as selecting products and clicking the “Add to Cart” button.

d. Once the items are added to the cart, click the “Proceed to Checkout” button or any similar button leading to the payment gateway.

e. Complete the necessary actions in the payment gateway, such as entering payment details and submitting the payment.

f. Stop the recording in the Testsigma Recorder app.

2. NLP Conversion:

a. After stopping the recording, the Testsigma Recorder app will convert the recorded steps into NLP-based steps.

b. Review and edit the NLP-based steps if necessary to ensure they accurately represent the actions performed during the recording.

3. Testcase Configuration:

a. Provide a suitable name for the testcase, such as “Cart to Payment Gateway Integration Test.”

b. Assign appropriate tags or labels to categorize the testcase for better organization.

c. specify any prerequisites or test data needed for the testcase.

d. Configure any necessary test environment settings or variables.

4. Assertion and Validation:

a. Add assertions or validations to ensure the expected behavior of the transition from the cart to the payment gateway.

b. For example, you can verify that the payment confirmation page is displayed or check for error messages.

5. Save and Execute:

a. Save the created test case in Testsigma.

b. Run the test case as part of an automated test suite execution with your preferred lab and OS preferences.

c. During execution, Testsigma will perform the recorded steps, interact with the application under test, and validate the expected outcomes.

Following these steps, you can automate the integration test scenario of moving from the cart to the payment gateway using Testsigma’s NLP-based approach. This allows you to create test cases quickly and efficiently, reducing the manual effort required for testing and increasing the reliability of your big bang integration tests.

Bottom-up Integration Testing

Bottom-up Integration Testing is a strategy in which the lower level modules are tested first. These tested modules are then further used to facilitate the testing of higher level modules. The process continues until all modules at top level are tested. Once the lower level modules are tested and integrated, then the next level of modules are formed.

Diagrammatic Representation:

Advantages:

  • Fault localization is easier.
  • No time is wasted waiting for all modules to be developed unlike Big-bang approach

Disadvantages:

  • Critical modules (at the top level of software architecture) which control the flow of application are tested last and may be prone to defects.
  • An early prototype is not possible
What is Integration Testing?   Software Testing Tutorial
What is Integration Testing? Software Testing Tutorial

Stubs and Drivers

Stubs and Drivers are the dummy programs in Integration testing used to facilitate the software testing activity. These programs act as a substitutes for the missing models in the testing. They do not implement the entire programming logic of the software module but they simulate data communication with the calling module while testing.

Stub: Is called by the Module under Test.

Driver: Calls the Module to be tested.

Big Bang Testing Drawbacks

Certainly! Here are some drawbacks of Big Bang Testing:

  • Difficulty isolating failures: With big bang testing, its difficult to isolate failures due to the integration of all components simultaneously, leading to greater debugging work and limited fault localization. This can lead to lengthy troubleshooting and resolution time.
  • Late detection of defects: This testing increases the likelihood of identifying key issues late in the development cycle, making them more time-consuming and expensive to fix. It also limits the ability to construct effective and targeted test cases due to the lack of individual component testability.
  • Reduced test coverage: Big Bang’s success is due to its reliance on the stability and readiness of all components, which can lead to delays and interruptions if any module is not completed or running properly. This is because all components are integrated simultaneously, resulting in reduced test coverage and greater reliance on system stability.
  • Limited risk mitigation: The inability to identify and mitigate risks early in the development process lowers the capacity to recognize and mitigate risks, potentially leading to more serious effects if concerns surface during Big Bang Testing.

Software development teams should consider the viability of Big Bang Testing for their projects and consider alternative methodologies to solve these limitations.

Unit 5 Big Bang Testing - Software Quality Assurance
Unit 5 Big Bang Testing – Software Quality Assurance

Big Bang Testing

Big Bang Testing is an Integration testing approach in which all the components or modules are integrated together at once and then tested as a unit. This combined set of components is considered as an entity while testing. If all of the components in the unit are not completed, the integration process will not execute.

Advantages:

  • Convenient for small systems.

Disadvantages:

  • Fault Localization is difficult.
  • Given the sheer number of interfaces that need to be tested in this approach, some interfaces link to be tested could be missed easily.
  • Since the Integration testing can commence only after “all” the modules are designed, the testing team will have less time for execution in the testing phase.
  • Since all modules are tested at once, high-risk critical modules are not isolated and tested on priority. Peripheral modules which deal with user interfaces are also not isolated and tested on priority.

Incremental Testing

In the Incremental Testing approach, testing is done by integrating two or more modules that are logically related to each other and then tested for proper functioning of the application. Then the other related modules are integrated incrementally and the process continues until all the logically related modules are integrated and tested successfully.

Incremental Approach, in turn, is carried out by two different Methods:

  • Bottom Up
  • Top Down
What is Big Bang Testing? Software Testing Interview Question #shorts
What is Big Bang Testing? Software Testing Interview Question #shorts

Types of Integration Testing

Software Engineering defines variety of strategies to execute Integration testing, viz.

  • Big Bang Approach :
  • Incremental Approach: which is further divided into the following

    • Top Down Approach
    • Bottom Up Approach
    • Sandwich Approach – Combination of Top Down and Bottom Up

Below are the different strategies, the way they are executed and their limitations as well advantages.

What is Big Bang Integration Testing?

Big Bang Integration Testing is a unique technique to software testing that brings all system elements together in one breathtaking instant. It allows developers to examine how the modules interact with each other and identify any potential issues or conflicts that may arise. This method offers a holistic view of the system’s functionality and ensures that all the integrated components work harmoniously.

Big Bang Integration Testing provides a full perspective of the system’s capabilities. This innovative and compelling testing approach pulls all system components together in one breathtaking instant. Providing a holistic perspective of the system’s operation while posing the problem of discovering and addressing difficulties in a thorough integration.

Big Bang Integration Testing| RD Technical Learning
Big Bang Integration Testing| RD Technical Learning

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